Industrial Revolution and Imperialism

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 561
  • Published : May 22, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
Industrial Revolution
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BEGAN IN ENGLAND, AND SPREAD TO THE REST OF WESTERN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES. WITH THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, CAME AN INCREASED DEMAND FOR RAW MATERIALS FROM THE AMERICAS, ASIA, AND AFRICA. ADVANCEMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY PRODUCED THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, WHILE ADVANCEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND MEDICINE ALTERED THE LIVES OF PEOPLE LIVING IN THE NEW INDUSTRIAL CITIES. CULTURAL CHANGES SOON FOLLOWED. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIES WERE BASED ON THE FAMILY UNIT. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION HAD A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE FAMILY. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION PLACED NEW DEMANDS ON THE LABOR OF MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN. WORKERS ORGANIZED LABOR UNIONS TO FIGHT FOR IMPROVED WORKING CONDITIONS AND WORKERS’ RIGHTS.

Industrial Revolution
• Origin in England, because of its natural resources like coal, iron ore, and the invention and improvement of the steam engine • Spread to Europe and the United States
• Role of cotton textile, iron, and steel industries
• Relationship to the British Enclosure Movement
• Rise of the factory system and demise of cottage industries • Rising economic powers that wanted to control raw materials and markets throughout the world Technological advances that produced the Industrial Revolution • James Watt—Steam engine

• John Kay – flying shuttle
• James Hargreaves – spinning jenny
• Richard Arkwright – water frame
• Eli Whitney—Cotton gin
• Henry Bessemer—Process for making steel
Advancements in science and medicine
• Edward Jenner—Developed smallpox vaccination
• Louis Pasteur—Discovered bacteria and developed pasteurization process to kill bacteria • Charles Darwin – Theory of Evolution
Impacts of the Industrial Revolution on industrialized countries • Population increase
• Eventually increased standards of living for many, though not all • Improved transportation
• Urbanization – led to sanitation problems, disease → social reform, medical care improves • Environmental pollution
• Dissatisfaction of working class with working conditions and low pay • Growth of the middle class – managers and merchants gained enough money to become middle class The nature of work in the factory system

• Family-based cottage industries displaced by the factory system • Harsh working conditions with men competing with women and children for wages • Child labor that kept costs of production low and profits high • Owners of mines and factories who exercised considerable control over the lives of their laborers Impact of the Industrial Revolution on slavery

• The cotton gin increased demand for slave labor on American plantations. • The United States and Britain outlawed the slave trade and then slavery based on moral arguments and calls for implementation of enlightenment ideals Social effects of the Industrial Revolution

• Women and children entering the workplace as cheap labor led to reforms to end child labor • Expansion of education as children no longer sent into mines and factories; need somewhere for them • Women’s increased demands for suffrage

• Increase of mass culture (appeal and availability of entertainment to many) & developing consumerism The rise of labor unions
• Encouraged worker-organized strikes to increase wages and improve working conditions • Lobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers, including women and children • Wanted worker rights and collective bargaining between labor and management Rise of Capitalism

CAPITALISM AND MARKET COMPETITION FUELED THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. WEALTH INCREASED THE STANDARD OF LIVING FOR SOME. SOCIAL DISLOCATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPITALISM PRODUCED A RANGE OF ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL IDEAS, INCLUDING SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM. Capitalism

• Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations-...
tracking img