ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE TERM PAPER:
INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT.
(A Case study of pesticides poisoning fish in Lake Naivasha).
Pollution may be defined as any direct or indirect alteration of the physical, thermal, biological or radioactive properties of the environment that creates an actual or potential hazard to the health safety or welfare of any living species.
Also pollution may said to be any inserting of any foreign matter in the wrong place and in quantities that are too large which eventually cause harm human and other living organism. Waste from people and animals pollute water. Air becomes polluted from smoke, dust and automobile exhaust gases.
Pollution can therefore be simply put or viewed as any interference that prevents the beneficial use of air, water, plants and animals.
Industrial pollution of the environment may be divided into the following:-
• Water pollution
• Soil pollution
• Air pollution
• Noise pollution
In about two and half years ago, thousands of fish were dying in Lake Naivasha a world renowned rift valley lake famous for diversity of birds. The lake although protected by the government for global importance, concerns have been raised about the impacts of developments around the lake which had gone un-heeded for years. Witnesses on the ground and the Member of Parliament in the area claimed that the flower companies extracted water from the lake and at the same time dumped the pesticides laden wastes into the lake. This leads us to water pollution by the flower companies. In the right place and in the right quantity, a given substance may be beneficial. Pesticides and fertilizers are beneficial in the farmer’s field but not in lake where they will promote the growth of algae which reduce the commercial, domestic and aesthetic value of the water. The growth of flower firms around Lake Naivasha leads to increased demand for clean water and at the same time, the very same firms dissipate waste water and individual waste into the drainage system which is polluted by lead, mercury, acids, ammonia and oil. As a result if there is any sewerage treatment or refuse disposal facilities are quickly outdone. Over centuries the water masses in the world have been regarded as suitable dumping sites for all sorts of waste. Flower export growth has lead to need for increased production and this result to heavier application of pesticides, herbicides and nitrate fertilizers. This means more pollutants find their way into streams, rivers, lakes, sea and even underground water and this becomes a real hazard to the users and the living organism like fish and others living in the waters.
Pesticides often kill a higher proportion of the non – target population other than the pests. Because some synthetic pesticides have a toxic effect on so many other non – target organisms they are at times labeled “Biocides”.
The effects of pollutants on soil are difficult to evaluate because the soil itself are extra ordinary complex ecosystems. There are numerous and varied micro-organisms in the soil and yet only several million in each acre e.g. mites, arthropods, bacteria and the micro flora are essential for the soil fertility as they play various roles in the ecology of the soil. Micro-organisms are responsible for the conversion of nitrogen, phosphorous and sulphur into useful nutrients for the plants. Most of the complex physical and chemical processes responsible for soil fertility are dependent upon the soil organisms. Soil treated with deadly and persistent poisons are cause of great concern. Constant use of pesticides is certainly reducing fertility and these pesticides find their way to the rivers and lakes which cause harm to water organism as may be the case of Lake Naivasha.
The growth of firms...
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