Individuals in the Organization

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Chapter 4
Individual in the Organization

A study of the individual in an organization is important, for the bulk of the adult population spends more than a third of its waking hours in the organization by which it is employed. And for most people, formal organizations represent a major part of the environment that exerts a significant effect upon their behavior. To represent individual in an organization, we must look into organization as a social system.

1.Social System
a. Human Organization – Status and Role
2.Organization
a.Concepts or Organization
3.Organization as a Social System
4.Human Element in Organization
5.Informal Groups in an Organization
6.Occupational Culture

SOCIAL SYSTEM
The word system can be traced back to Aristotle who suggested that ‘the whole is greater than the source of its parts’. The concept of general systems theory founded by biologist, Von Vetalanfy in 1920, assumes that ‘general laws and concepts for the foundation of such disease fields as biology and physiology, the physical sciences, the basic concepts of economics and psychology in the social sciences, are that things do not just happen, but rather that they evolve from multiple causes and multiple effects. ‘ A system may be defined as a series of interrelated and interdependent parts, such that the interaction or interplay of any of the subsystems (parts) affects the whole organization. All areas or sections within the organization function in a coordinate way to be effectively productive for progress. For our purpose we shall briefly discuss the human organization and social organization to show the individual’s relation to the total system. This organization operates in a complex system of values and relationships which may be conceptualized as a social system.

HUMAN ORGANIZATION
Status and Roles
Human organization as a system can be likened to a human model using the biological approach which considers the nervous, circulatory, digestive, reproductive, etc. system as separate systems. Each of these individuals is a subsystem of the total system which is interrelated and interdependent.

In addition to this model, the psychological perspective of human system will also consider. The important variables – feelings, values, and norms of behavior all interact with other variables. These are influenced by other variables. We use the psychological-biological perspective to study human being as a complete system and also as a sub-system of the social organization and of society as a whole.

In the system of roles each individual has a specific role to play with each of the roles coordinated with a more integrated pattern. Role is the sum total of behavior patterns expected of a person in his activities which involve other roles. The positions people occupy in society are established with reference and values of that society.

A status is a position that has been accorded to an individual in a social system which implies a collection of rights and duties. Status is important in the interpersonal relationships of the particular group where the status is accorded. Status ranks people on different levels.

Status may be fixed and beyond the control of the individual (sex, skin color, or ancestry) this is ascribed status. Positions subject to control by individuals are achieved status.
Multiple roles may cause problems, in that an individual may not recognize what is called for in a new and different status. Multiple roles can cause further problems arising from the inability of the individual to make a complete shift in behavior as a change in status occurs. Role conflict is the condition when the changes in status and roles are disrupted.

ORGANIZATION
Organization means the social units (human groupings) deliberately constructed and reconstructed to seek specific goals.
An organization is a mechanism or structure that enables living things to work effectively together. It is the process of...
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