Individual Behaviour Research Paper

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3rd lecture Individual Behavior

Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg robert.zaugg@unifr.ch

Individual Behavior

Learning Objectives

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Explain the nature of the individual-organization relationship Define personality and describe personality attributes that affect behavior in organizations Discuss individual attitudes in organizations and how they affect behavior Describe basic perceptual processes and the role of attributions in organizations Explain how workplace behaviors can directly or indirectly influence organizational effectiveness

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

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Individual Behavior

People in Organizations

Psychological contracts: A person’s set of expectations regarding what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization, in return, will provide to the individual – An individual’s contributions to an organization include: – Effort, skills, ability, time, loyalty – Organizations provide inducements to individuals in the form of tangible/intangible rewards

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Individual Behavior

Figure 3.1 The Psychological Contract

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

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Individual Behavior

People in Organizations





The person-job fit: The extent to which the contributions made by the individual match the inducements offered by the organization Individual differences: Personal attributes that vary from one person to another

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Individual Behavior

Personality and Organizations

The “Big Five” Personality Traits – A set of fundamental traits that are especially relevant to organizations – Agreeableness: The ability to get along with others – Conscientiousness: The number of goals on which a person focuses – Negative emotionality: Characteristics are moodiness/insecurity – Extraversion: The quality of being comfortable with relationships – Openness: The capacity to entertain new ideas and to change as a result of new information Organizational Behavior 6 Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

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Individual Behavior

Figure 3.2 The “Big Five” Personality Framework

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Individual Behavior

Personality and Organizations

The Myers-Briggs Framework – Differentiation across four general dimensions – Sensing – Intuiting – Judging – Perceiving – Sixteen personality classifications result from the higher and lower positions of the general dimensions – MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) is a popular questionnaire used to assess personality types – Communications styles – Interaction preferences

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

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Individual Behavior

Personality and Organizations

Emotional Intelligence (EQ): The extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and possess social skills – Dimensions – Self-awareness – Managing Emotions – Motivating Oneself – Empathy – Social Skill

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

Individual Behavior

Personality and Organizations

Other Personality Traits at Work – Locus of control: The extent to which a person believes his/her circumstances are a function of either his/her own actions or of external factors beyond his/her control – Self-efficacy: A person’s beliefs about his/her capabilities to perform a task – Authoritarianism: The belief that power/status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social systems such as organizations

Organizational Behavior

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Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg

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Individual Behavior

Personality and Organizations

Other Personality Traits at Work – Machiavellianism: Behavior directed at gaining power and control of others – Self-esteem: The extent to which a person believes he/she is a worthwhile/deserving...
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