We find Jain style in the four paintings of Jins (Jain Gods) in the Sittanvasala caves in 700A.D. The oldest examples of this school are the paintings of parshwa-Nath, Nemi-Nath and Rish-Nath etc, 20 Tirthankars in “KalKacharya Katha” and “Kalpa Sutra”. Most of the Jain paintings were done Black & white 10th&15th century. These paintings have been mostly executed on Tala-Patra. There was an article “Jain on Dwara Pallavit Chitrakala” in the “Vishal Bharat” written by Muni Kanti sagar in which he has mentioned these paintings to have been painted on Tala-Patra, paper and cloth.
In the Frayer atr gallery of Washington a manuscript o cloth named “Vasant vilas” was found which has been quoted as belonging to the Jain style by some art critics. The book has 50 Shalokas in it. Paintings of eyes have been a specialty of this school. Gold color also has been used. These Jain paintings are done on Tala-Patra by Red & Yellow colors. Because of the lack of space the lines have been very carefully drawn.
After the advent of Mugals, Jain style suffered a set back but there was mention that Jain artists also were there in the court of Jahangir. Muni Kanti Sagar has referred to some manuscripts which had Jain style paintings. Among them some are “Shri Kalpa Sutra”, Jain “Chitra Kalpa Lata”, “Sachitra Kalpa Sutra” the examples of Jain school are found in Calcutta, Baroda, Surat, Khambat, Bombay, Poona and Bikaner. Female figure were rare in Jain school. However some were found there but they were of worshipped Goddesses of the TirthanKaras which were painted in Chitra-Kalpa drum. Dhoti has been made especially beautiful. The garments of saints have been shown white like pearls or golden garlands and Mukut have been specially designed and nicely painted. The paintings of ek Chasma (side profile), Ded Chasma(one and half eye face) and front pose have been done in this school. As we come to Rajput and Mugal school, we find specially developed form of this school. RAJASTHANI SCHOOL
Rajasthani School consists of Mewar School, Kishan Garh School, Bikaner school, Bundi School and Jaipur School. In 15th century, it is supooesd to be the time of revival of Hindu literature of painting, music, art, architecture. All these saw a new dawn in this period. Paintings of Krishna religion, ragmala and ritikala poetry etc. were done in this period. This was not the traditional apabhransha style of painting. But in very divine and purify form of the same which originated in Gujrat and Mewar as a new school. This was called as Rajasthani or rajput or Hindu school. In the beginning the paintings were confined to different kings for their amusement, gradually it all came to the common man. Several precious paintings were destroyed by the Mugal in 16th to 17th century. In the beginning, the style was inspired by religion as the followers of ramanuja like Surdas, Tulsidas, Meera Vallabha Charya and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu had taken the expansion and publicity of Hindu Vaishnava religion to climax. In later stage, paintings were done on romance and general folk theme. The whole Rajasthan was affected by the invasion of Mugals but Mewar did not come under this control up to last. This was the reason that first of all Rajasthani School developed in Mewar in the present form. |
PATNA SCHOOL OR COMPANY SCHOOL OF PAINTING
After the downfall of Mugal’s emperor artist tried to settle themselves I different parts of the country some artist took refugee under the Nawab of Murshidabad as the conditions were better there. Paintings were on for three years but the cause of the quarrels of East India Company and the Nawabs and the attacks of Afgane and Maratha the painters settled at Patna during 1750-1776.
Paintings went on in Patna for two Centuries 18th-20th. It was a big business centre and the main commercial centre of British. That’s why the Britishers got mainly painting done by these artists and sent them to England...