Indian Political Thinkers During the Independence Struggle

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INDIAN POLITICAL THINKERS DURING THE INDEPENDENCE STRUGGLE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I:
INTRODUCTION………………………………………………..6
CHAPTER II:
POLITICAL THOUGHT OF
RABINDRANATH TAGORE………………………………….11
CHAPTER III:
POLITICAL THOUGHT OF
SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE…………………………………..15
CHAPTER IV:
POLITICAL THOUGHT OF
GOPAL KRISHNA GOKHALE……………………………….25
CHAPTER V:
CONCLUSION............................................................................32
BIBLIOGRAPHY....................................................................................33

Chapter: I
Introduction

1.1. Political Thought
Political thought is covers the spectrum of ideals and principles regarding the state, its structure, nature and purpose. It is the moral phenomenon of human behaviour in the complex web of the society. A close relation exists between the political thought of a given period and the complementing political environment. Most of the political concepts and theories have arisen either to justify the authority that man obeyed or to criticise it in the hope of accomplishing change. 1.2. Ancient Indian Political Thought

Ancient Indian political thought has been significantly represented by the Vedas, the Upanishads, and the Bhagwadgita. The political thought found in the great Epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, is more complex and comprehensive. The Manusmriti, along with other Smritis, dealt with every political institution and the entire panorama of human life vertically and horizontal perspective led to the concept of Dharma. Both these concepts together form backbone of Indian political thought. Both these concepts were supported equally by philosophy and science. Therefore, it is no wonder that the contemporary Indian political thinkers have unanimously appreciated Raja Dharma as the sound basis of polity. Ancient Indian writers concentrated more on spirituality and Vedanta then on mere politics and administration. The most important factor in shaping the growth and development of  India's political thought in ancient times must be sought in the  essential genius of her people. They made no distincton between religion and politics. They were concerned with the totality of life and considered politics as a part of whole life. They were more concerned about mundane worldly matters. The ancient Indian political thought is known as Rajya Sastra (science of State), Dandaneeti (science of Force), Raja Dharma (Ethics of State), Kshatriya Vidya (science of Rulership), Nripa Sastra (science of Kings), etc. The following are the main features of ancient Indian political thought: Whole life: - While ancient Greeks were concerned with the relation between city-state and man, ancient Indians were concerned with the relation between the man and universe. Indian thought is not concerned with particular aspect of life, but with its totality. So politics became a part of life and religion. Politics became ethics of the whole society Hence, it is said that while the ancient Indian political thought is unscientific, the western political thought is systematic, scientific and analytic in nature. Intimate relation to social organisation: - Politics has intimate relation to social organisation. It regards the State as all embracing. Indian thought was concerned with synthesis than with analysis. Emphasis on practice: - The ancient Indian political thought was more an art of government rather than a theory of the State. The ancient Indian thought was confined to the practical problems faced by the monarch whereas the Western political thought was concerned with the theory of the State. Secret diplomacy: - Indian political thought advocated power politics, cunning and secret diplomacy. In matters of territorial expansion, ends were more important than means. There was no place for ethicsin such political matters. Kingship: - Another important feature of the ancient Indian polity is that it was mainly concerned with...
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