India’s Nuclear Policy
The relationship between International Nuclear Regimes and developing nations is a matter of passionate debate. Debate is in process on certain issues like nuclear policy, on grand strategies, on basic political values etc. It is a debate with implications for our individual and collective existence and raises fundamental question about political preferences, approaches and pathways ahead. The end of World War II and use of nuclear bomb presented US with new kind of strategic dilemma. How could a potentially apocalyptic technology once discovered, permanently be kept out of the hands of competitors and in March 1963, President J.F.Kennedy warned the Americans public that 15-25 states would come to posses nuclear weapons by 1970.(Spector,Sanfrancisco,1990) Currently 09 states have successfully detonated nuclear weapons of which 05 are called Nuclear Weapon States- US, Russia, U.K, France, China and rest are India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Israel. The prediction of President Kennedy did not come to pass is not because of lack of technological know how but rather several states that could have developed nuclear weapon program chose not to do so and signed NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) as non- nuclear weapon states.It is the most questionable treaty by International Nuclear Regime and posses direct criticism from developing nations. The discrimination is inherent in NPT as it allows some state to have nuclear weapons while others not and it is sidestepped by the inclusion of Article VI. It represents a diplomatic victory in the cold war era; success was almost destined from the outset due to simple strategic dynamic: nuclear armed states, as they didn’t want to nullify their strategic advantage by allowing competitors to acquire nuclear weapons. (http://www.ippnw.org/Resourcelibrary/Treaties Brief. Pdf) CTBT banns all nuclear explosions, whether they take place in atmosphere or underground the earth. It was negotiated in Geneva between 1994 and 1996. The treaty has not come into force. Without the support from key players like US, China, DPRK, Egypt, to a lesser degree India etc., it faces an uncertain future. India-Pak largely owing to their low-level nuclear arms race, have not signed the treaty. Though a lot of external pressure is constantly been made for it. (http://www.docstoc.com/docs/5313084/CTBTO-Fact-Sheet-CTBT-Comprehensive-NuclearTeat-Ban-Treaty) FMCT- Fissile Material Cut off Treaty similarly bans the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Again it has faced similar results as of earlier treaties. There has been a nuclear non-proliferation regime since 1957, but its future is in doubt. Increasingly bilateral influences on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) programs indicate retrenchment from cooperative multilateral behavior. Restrictions on technology transfer, undertaken in efforts to prevent the creation of the unit veto-system have impelled developing countries to break out of the collaborative framework of the regime and pursue autarchic strategies. As far as norms like universality is concerned the developing countries mistrust proposed universal institutions because of disparities in power maintaing advantages for the developed states even under ostensibly universal rules. Also the developing states countering to the International Nuclear Regimes are reluctant to accept sovereignty costs without symbolic and material compensations. (Brito, New York, 1983) The Nuclear suppliers states have historically been able to monopolize the supply of materials facilities and technology, because they have the leverage of monopoly suppliers, they have been able to make demands on other states that can’t be ignored. The developing states have had little of the power within the regime enjoyed by the nuclear suppliers. (Schiff, New Jersey, 1984) Along with these the other treaties and...
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