In What Ways Did the Late Qing Reform Help Modernizing China?

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1.In what ways did the Late Qing Reform help modernizing China? (15 marks) The Late Qing Reform helped modernize China in certain ways. Politically, modernization refers to the transformation of monarchy to democracy. Economically, it refers to the process of industrialization, agricultural mechanization and the development of transportation. Socially, it refers to the procedure of urbanization, improvement in communication and people’s growing desire to participate in politic. Culturally, it freed a nation from conservative beliefs to acceptance of interchange of diverse culture. Educationally, it enables knowledge to be commonly taught instead of reserving it for the rich. For both aspects above, it emphasizes individual right and free thinking rather than restrictions on composing works and exams. Militarily, it refers to Westernize methods and diversity in training, which is the establishment of armies, navies and air forces, in contrast with unsystematic military training.

Politically, in 1908, the outline of Constitution was issued and a nine-year programme of constitutional preparation was announced. In 1909, the first introduction and practice of election were carried out after the setup of the provincial assemblies. The outline of the Constitution gave people freedom of speech, writing, publication, assembly and association within the limit of law. It also showed the first attempt of the Qing government to abolish the monarchy and lead China towards democracy. The setup of the provincial assemblies gave people the right to vote and exercise their power through their representatives in the parliament. Therefore, the Late Qing Reform formed the first model of democratic practices and helped modernize China politically.

Economically, the reform made many commercial and industrial regulations, e.g. the Regulation of mining and the Companies Registration. People were encouraged to set up enterprises and do business as their property rights were secured...