# Impact of Jet

Topics: Fluid dynamics, Volumetric flow rate, Mass flow rate Pages: 12 (3036 words) Published: May 2, 2013
OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the experiment are:
1. To demonstrate pump performance when connected in series and parallel 2. To show shut off point of pump in series and parallel
ABSTRACT / INTRODUCTION
Pump is a general term for any fluid machine; used to transfer and add energy to fluid in a system, either at the same level or to a new height. There are some fundamental parameters used to determine the performance of a pump. The mass flow rate of fluid is the obvious primary pump performance parameter and for incompressible flow, it is more common to use volume flow rate rather than mass flow rate. The performance of a pump is characterized by its net head, H. In selecting a pump for a given situation, we have a variety of pumps to choose among. The manufacturers provide the pump performance information such as the pump performance curves. The engineer’s task is to the pump or pumps that best fits in with the system characteristics. One of the considerations in fulfilling a system characteristic is whether to combine a pump in one system or not. The combination may be in parallel or series. When pumps are operated in series, the combined net head is simply the sum of the net heads of each pump at a given volume flow rate.

Combined net head for n pumps in series: Hcombined = ∑Hi

While if two or more identical or similar pumps are operated in parallel, their individual volume flow rates rather than their net heads are summed.

Combined capacity for n pumps in parallel: Vcombined = ∑Vi

The flow rate depends on the height to which the fluid is pumped, and the relationship between “head” and flow rate is called the “pump characteristic curve.” Often in engineering applications a single pump cannot deliver the flow rate or head necessary for a particular need, and two or more pumps can be combined in series to increase the height to which the fluid can be pumped, or in parallel to increase the flow rate. This experimental apparatus demonstrates how the combined pump characteristic curve compares with that of the single pump. So, the consideration of adding an additional smaller pump in series or in parallel with the original pump exist when the need to increase volume flow rate or pressure rise by the small amount. To test whether a series and parallel is acceptable or may lead to some problems in application, we need to see to the pump performance curve. We also should realize that pressure rise and volume flow rate is related. In practice, several pumps may be combined in parallel to deliver a large volume flow rate. From this experiment, by examining pump performance curve for pumps in series and pumps in parallel, we easily can say that the pumps in series tend to increase head but pumps in parallel tend to increase capacity.

EQUIPMENT
Pump in Series and Parallel Apparatus:

Figure 1: “SOLTEQ” Series & Parallel Pump Test
Unit (Model: FM07A)

PROCEDURE
Start Up Procedure:-
1. The circulation tank is filled with water up to at least the end of the pipe output is submerged in water. 2. The V5 is fully in the close position.
3. The main power supply is switched on.
4. The appropriate pump is selected and the following valve position is checked. Pump Operation| Running Pump| Open Valve| Close Valve|
Single| Pump 1,P1| 1,4| 2,3|
Serial| Both Pump, P1 & P2| 1,3| 2,4|
Parallel| Both Pump, P1 & P2| 1,2,4| 3|

5. The pump is turn on and V5 is slowly opened until the maximum flow rate is achieved. Switch off Procedure: -
1. The pump is turned off.
2. V5 is in the close position.
3. The main power supply is switched off.

RESULTS AND THE CALCULATED DATA
Single Pump
* * No.| * Volume Flow Rate (L/min)| * Pressure 1,P1 (psi)| * Pressure 2, P2(psi)| * Pressure Drop(psi) * (P2 - P1)| * | * | * Reading 1| * Reading 2| * Average| * Reading 1...