Impact of Coastal Development to Seagrass Habitat
The purpose of the report is to propose a research on the impact of coastal development to seagrass habitat. This project shows the processes and final results from the survey and research on library and internet that we have conducted. From the survey, we found that the impact of coastal development to seagrass habitat have become a serious problem that will face by human being. Meanwhile, the major problem they might face if loss of seagrass habitat is lack of oxygen supply and loss of main source of protein. Based on the result obtained, our recommendation is to provide a lot of advertisement to let the public know how important seagrass to our daily life are. It is suggested that the coastal development should be stopped to preserve all the seagrass meadows.
Coaster developments can be defined as the development of infrastructure that taking place at the seaside. These types of development will surely changing the natural landscape of the coaster area. This will significantly bring huge negative impact to the sea organism’s habitat especially seagrass.
Seagrass is a unique flowing plant that has more from land back to the ocean. Seagrass has existing in the earth since dinosaur’s generation. They are the only underwater flowering plants in the world. Nowadays, there are around 60 species of seagrasses found in the world. Seagrass is similar to terrestrial (plant on land). Just like terrestrial, seagrass also has leaf, stem, root, flower, fruit and seed. Therefore, seagrass also carry out photosynthesis process to produce food to maintain their life. They reproduce via flowers, fruits and seeds. The leaf of seagrass consists of chloroplasts that enable them to absorb sunlight penetrate into the sea water to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugar. Seagrass leaves lack stomata but have thin cuticle to allow gas and nutrient exchange. Seagrass has complex root structure to anchor whole body in the sand or mud and they use their roots to extract nutrients and mineral from sediment. The stems of seagrass do not possess strong supportive structure because they do not required to overcome the force of gravity on land. Their stems are remaining flexible and are supported by the natural buoyancy of water. Example of seagrass families are Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae, and Cymodoceaceae. Posidoniaceae are found in the Mediterranean Sea and around south coast of Australia. Zosteraceae found at temperate and subtropical coastal water likes Korea and Japan. Hydrocharitaceae has clover like seagrass, grow at tropical regions. Cymodoceaceae also known as manateegrass family are marine plants live in tropical seas.
Seagrass is an important plant in the earth. The values of seagrass are even three times more than coral reefs. Seagrass provides much more ecosystem services than coral reefs. Firstly, seagrass is the main food for dugong. A mature dugong needs 40 kg of seagrass to maintain its daily life. They can even clear seagrass meadows when they feed. Other than dugong, sea turtles also take seagrass as they food, especially the Green Sea Turtles (scientific name as Chelonia Mydas). A Green Sea Turtles eats 2 kg of seagrass leaves in a day. The shorebirds are feeding at intertidal seagrass meadows. Sragrass meadows are the habitat areas for a lot of marine life likes fish and prawn. Fisheries are the main sources of protein for human being. Therefore, seagrass is important to maintain the ecosystems and biodiversity. Seagrass could sequester approximately 12% of global carbon stored in ocean sediment. According to research, 1 meter square of seagrass meadow that carry out photosynthesis can produce up to 10 liters of oxygen per day. However, human are not realize on the important of seagrass. The coastal reclamation is the most endanger to seagrass habitat....