• Subject Agenda*
Theoretical part (Lecture): 14.01----18.03----22.04.2013 Practical part (Labwork)
• Study Materials: Textbook (David Male and Ivan Roitt-2006-DIR; Abul Abbas-2007AA), Clips and Internet search • Classconversation@gmail.com. Pass: btiu12345
• Evaluation - Midterm Exam, Final Exam, Labwork - Assignment (Home-work, Topic-oriented-In-class discussion, Readand-Present Practice) Contact me at: R501, IU Building; or via email: email@example.com
Introduction to IMMUNOLOGY- An X soup
• What is Immunology? What is Immune System (IS)? • History of Immunology • Cells and Soluble Mediators of IS= ? • Immune Response- Pathogens (Ags): Innate and Adaptive Immunity- Collaboration
Introduction to IMMUNOLOGY
What is Immunology? What is Immune System (IS)?
Immunology is the study of our protection from foreign macromolecules or invading organisms and our responses to them. Foreign macromolecule/ Antigen –--- Immunogen: e.g. virus protein, worm, parasite Everything that should not be in my body
Immune System: Molecules, cells, tissues and organs which provide nonspecific and specific protection against Microorganisms; Microbial toxins and Tumor cells
Crucial to human survival
History of Immunology
• Experiential Immunology period • Experimental Immunology period • Modern Immunology period Immunology act as an independent subject (1970s)
I. Experiential Immunology period
(the 17th century- the middle of 19th century)
In ancient times, many serious infection diseases, such as smallpox, plague and cholera etc, caused innumerable people dead.
--- Black Death Disease
Story of Plague
port of Weymouth.
The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350, and killing between 75 million and 200 million people Wikipedia Yersinia pestis
Figure 1. Photomicrographs demonstrating the high bacterial burden of Y pestis in various organs. Top left, A: Tissue Gram stain of a lymph node reveals the profusion of neutrophils and large clumps of Gram-negative coccobacilli characteristic of Y pestis (Brown-Hopps, original × 400). Large clusters of bacteria (arrows) are found in the alveolar spaces (top right, B), adrenals (bottom left, C), and kidneys (bottom right, D) [hematoxylin-eosin, original × 400]. Chmura et al. 2003, CHEST, Painful Lymphadenopathy and Fulminant Sepsis in a Previously Healthy 16-Year-Old Girl NTTH-HCMIU-IMMUN-2013
~ 430 B.C: Peloponesian War, Thucydides describes plague – the ones who had recovered from the disease could nurse the sick without getting the disease a second time
In 1670, Chinese medical practitioners : variolation
Edward Jennar ----An English physician He discovered that cowpox vaccination protected against smallpox in 1796
Vaccine: A preparation of microbial antigen, often combined with adjuvants,that is administered to individuals to induce protective immunity against microbial infections. Vaccination: A general term for immunization against infectious diseases,orginally derived from immunization against smallpox which uses the Vaccinia virus.
Why do they not want to play with my kids?
II. Experimental Immunology period
(the middle of 19th century-the middle of 20th century)
1. Active immunity
In the middle of 19th century R. Koch ----Isolated and cultured bacteria successfully Pasteur ----Infectious diseases were caused by pathogens In 1880, Pasteur ----Anti-cholera live-attenuated vaccine (old culture of Chicken V. cholera) ----Artificial active immunity
Active immunity: The form of adaptive immunity...