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Management
Management
Support
Systems

The Benefits of Human-Computer
Synergy
HUMANS

COMPUTERS

Think

Calculate and perform programmed
logical operations extremely rapidly

Have common sense

Store and retrieve data and
information extremely rapidly

Can make decisions

Perform complex logical and
arithmetical functions accurately

Can instruct computer what to do

Execute long, tedious operations

Can learn new methods and
techniques

Perform routine tasks less expensively
than humans

Can accumulate expertise

Are adaptable (can be programmed
and reprogrammed)

The Four-Step Management Approach
(Diagnosing Information Needs)
STEP 4

IMPLEMENTATION

Determine Individual Responsible
Ensure Enough Resources
Provide for Follow-up

STEP 3

DESIGN

Propose New System or Change Old System
Do Cost-Benefit Analysis

STEP 2

EVALUATION

Assess Current System
Identify-State-of –the-Art Characteristics
Determine Deficiencies

STEP 1

DIAGNOSIS

Assess the Situation
Determine Needs

The Four-Step Management Approach
(Diagnosing Information Needs)
• This approach helps managers and other
employees, not information systems
professionals, improve their information
management
management

IT Architecture
• is a high-level map or plan of the
information assets in an organization. It is
both a guide for current operations and a
blueprint for future directions.
• The IT architecture integrates the entire
organization’s business needs for
information, the IT infrastructure and all
applications.

IT Architecture
– High-level plan that details
• The organization’s information
requirements
• The way these requirements are being
satisfied.
– Incorporates information requirements,
existing and planned information
infrastructure and software applications.
– Helps ensure that the organization’s IT meets
the organization’s strategic business needs.

IT ARCHITECTURE (on-line travel agency)

IT INFRASTRUCTURE

IT Infrastructure
• An organization’s information
technology (IT) infrastructure consists of
the physical facilities, IT components, IT
services, and IT personnel that support the
entire organization

IT Infrastructure
–Defines integration, operation,
documentation, maintenance, and
management of computing
resources.
–Defines how specific computing
resources are arranged, operated,
and managed.

Principles and Learning
Objectives
• The management information system
(MIS) must provide the right information to
the right person in the right format at the
right
right time
• Decision support systems (DSSs) are
used when the problems are unstructured

Information Systems Essentials,
Sixth Edition

Principles and Learning
Objectives
• Specialized support systems, such as
group support systems (GSSs) and
executive support systems (ESSs), use
the
the overall approach of a DSS in situations
such as group and executive decision
making

Information Systems Essentials,
Sixth Edition

Why Learn About Information
and Decision Support Systems?
• True potential of information systems:
– Is in helping you and your coworkers make
more informed decisions

• Transportation coordinators can:
– Use management information reports to find
the least expensive way to ship products to
market and to solve bottlenecks

Information Systems Essentials,
Sixth Edition

Optimization, Satisficing, and
Heuristic Approaches
• Optimization model:
– Finds the best solution, usually the one that
will best help the organization meet its goals

• Satisficing model:
– Finds a good, but not necessarily the best,
problem solution

• Heuristics:
– Commonly accepted guidelines or procedures
that usually find a good solution
Information Systems Essentials, Sixth Edition

The Benefits of Information and
Decision Support Systems
• Decision support systems:
– Performance is typically a function of...
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