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INT. J. DIAB. DEV. COUNTRIES (1997), VOL. 17 105
Education Technology
V. Natrajan*
Teaching or learning process need to be viewed with
the following perspectives
a. Pre-requisites level of teaching
b. Motivation of the student
c. Curriculum specification
d. Characteristics of learning
e. Learning outcomes precisely identified in
behavioural terms
f. Achievement test and assessment of learning
outcomes.
Methods of teaching – learning are outlined as
follows:-
METHODS OF TEACHING/LEARNING
LECTURE
‘A straight talk or exposition possibly using visual
or other aids but without group participation other
than through questions at the conclusion’ (Ministry
of labour’s Glossary of Training terms.)
· Used extensively in university teaching
· Very difficult to prove its effectiveness
· Can be used for
1. large groups
2. introducing or summarizing topics covered
in great detail by some other methods
3. developing basic principles
4. providing an economic method for
demonstrating and showing to large groups,
new techniques, expensive equipment,
films.
5. providing an intellectually stimulating
experience.
· must be matched with ability level of students,
(the lesser the ability the more visual the
presentation)
· must form a part and never the whole of
teaching/learning process
· forms
I. formal style, controlled languages, logical
structure
II. informal style, conversational language
III. conversational style (with frequent
questions/answers)
· can be live, recorded, T.V. film or audio tape
· must be matched to ability level, time,
accommodation, facilities
· suited for purpose of motivation; inadequate for
practice of intellectual abilities.
LESSON
‘A method of instruction in which the material to be
presented is structured to ensure the participation of
the learning group’ (Ministry of Labour’s Glossary
of Training Terms)
· promotes efficient learning
· high degree of teacher ability
· participation is achieved by question-answer
technique providing feedback.
· Continuous monitoring of student learning is
done by
i) question – answer
ii) short objective type test items
iii) short answer essay type questions
· incomplete or progressive handout (blank
spaces to be filed in by students progressively –
correct answers given to them periodically –
reinforcement, correction and remedy).
· must be planned (Lesson plan consists of details
of specific, instructional objective, T/SA
activities, aids to teaching/learning, time
scheduling, testing or evaluation methods).
· involves use of audio – visual aids (pictures,
charts, OHP transparencies, film strips, films,
models – static as well as dynamic)
* Director, N.I.T.S. – New Delhi.
INT. J. DIAB. DEV. COUNTRIES (1997), VOL. 17 106
· enables basic psychological principles of
learning to be built in :
Organise subject matter,
Organise intellectual abilities
Organise student activities (guide, provide for
practice)
Evaluate
Motivate
· useful for learner behaviours of comprehension,
application, evaluation, synthesis.
DISCUSSION
May be free or led
Forms:
1. formal, controlled by the teacher, through
questions and answers (teachers – student
interactions)
2. informal, voluntary participation under guidance
(teacher – student; student – student)
3. short, structured, purposeful ‘buzz sessions’
with small groups (on the same specific
questions) followed by reporting to whole class.
4. purposeful, structured group discussion
(followed by reporting to the whole class and
general discussion)
6. group discussion with points for discussion.
· suited for development of learner behaviours
(communications, attitudes, values, social skills,
evaluation and synthesis)
TUTORIAL
· forms : individual groups
· suited for development of application,
evaluation, synthesis, expression,
communication, interests, attitudes.
· closed as well as open-ended problem solving
· involving simple to complex tasks or...
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