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The Cardiovascular System: Blood Pressure Regulation

1.a. Short term mechanisms for regulating blood pressure include regulating what three things?

1. Vessel diameter

2. Contractility

3. Heart rate

b. Long term mechanisms will regulate blood pressure.

2.Two major arterial baroreceptors are located where?

a. carotid sinus

b. aortic arch

3.Using up and down arrows, show the effect of increased blood pressure (BP) on the impulses sent to the brain, the effect on the parasympathetic (PNS) and sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems and the resulting change in blood pressure.

(BP ( ( impulses (( PNS and decrease SNS ( decrease BP

4.As a result of these changes in the PNS and SNS, list two effects on the heart and one on blood vessels.

Heart: decreased HR/CO

Blood vessels: vasodilation

5.Similar to question 3, show the effect of decreasing blood pressure.

(BP ( decrease impulses ( decrease PNS and increase SNS ( increase BP

6.In addition to effects on the heart and blood vessels, what hormones were

released from the adrenal gland? epinephrine

and noripeniphrine

7.a. What cells in the kidney monitor low blood pressure? Juxtaglomerular

b. What enzyme is released as a result of low blood pressure? renin

c. What does this enzyme act on in the blood? Angiotensinogen

8.Name two effects of Angiotensin II.

a. vasoconstrictor

b. increases aldosterone release

9.a. The main effect of aldosterone is: increases sodium reabsorption in kidneys

b. How does this increase blood volume? Because water will follow sodium

10.a. What other hormone will increase water reabsorption from the kidney?

ADH

b. What is the major stimulus for this hormone? An increase in plasma osmolarity
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