3. What are the different effects of the PNS and SNS on heart rate? Parasympathetic slows heart rate SNS increases heart rate 4. Atrial hypertrophy would probably have what effect on an electrocardiogram? *spike the p wave
5. What is the function of the papilary muscles? i.e. what do they prevent? pappilary muscle is necessary for the integrity of mitral and tricuspid valve apparatus.they help in the closure and opening of the above said valves during myocardial contractility.any dysfunction of these muscles lead to regurgitation of the coresponding valves and poor myocardial performance ultimately may end up in heart failure. Prevent backflow. 6. The ventricles are almost empty at the end of what phase of the cardiac cycle? Isovolumetric relaxation 7. Blood flow through a capillary bed is regulated by what? Vasodialation and constriction 8. Generalized vasomotion can raise or lower what important homeostatic variable throughout the body? Blood pressure 9. What capillary factors can lead to edema?
10. The maximum amount of air the lungs can contain is known as what? Inspiratory capacity 11. The rate of oxygen diffusion is affected by what pressure gradient? Its own pressure gradient. 12. Gas transport is the process of carrying gasses from where to where? Aveoli to systemic tissue
13. Carbon monoxide competes with what structure for the same binding site on Hb. oxygen 14. Which major blood vessels carry oxygen-poor blood? Veins?superior vena cava*
Study guide for exam II Allison Hays Ph.D. Spring 2012 Anatomy & Physiology 202
15. What is the most superficial layer enclosing the heart? The deepest layer? visceral pericardium. Endocardium 16. The tricuspid valve regulates the opening between what 2 chambers? Right atrium and right ventricle 17. Oxygen-poor blood passes through which heart valves? Vena cava O2 rich blood? Pulmonary vein 18. Describe the effects of pressure gradients on the opening and closing of the heart valves. 19. The _______sa node is the pacemaker that initiates each heart beat. 20. What is the function of the cardiac conduction system? To spontaneously generate and conduct action potentials
*These action potentials in turn trigger action potentials in cardiac muscle, allowing the heart to contract 21. List the correct path of an electrical excitation from the pacemaker to a cardiocyte in the left ventricle. Sa av avbundle perjunkie to cardiocycte in left ventricle 22. The pacemaker potential is a result of what ion? Sodium
23. The plateau in the action potential of cardiac muscle results from the action of what ion? Ca2+ 24. Atrial depolarization begins during what wave on an electrocardiogram? Ventricular depolarization? P wave. Qrs wave
25. When the left ventricle contracts, which valve closes and which valve is pushed open? Mitral valve closes and aortic valve opens* 26. Mitral valve stenosis causes blood to leak back into what chamber when ventricles contract? Left atrium* 27. Describe what is happening during isovolumetric contraction in terms of pressure and volume.
28. What is the correct sequence of events of the cardiac cycle? Ventricle filling, atrial contraction, isovolumetric contraction phase, ventricular ejection phase, isovolumetric relaxation phase, ventricular filing
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29. Most of ventricular filling occurs during what phase of the cardiac cycle? mid to late diastole
30. Assume that the left ventricle of a child's heart...