Ida Jean Orlando: Nurse Patient Relationships
“Nursing, as a noble profession, occurs through a process that involves the nurse and the individual in need of the nurses’ help” (Schmieding, 2002). The development of several types of nursing theories aide today’s nurses to become more compassionate, nurturing and effective communicators in the patient’s care. The focus may be on the patient, nurse, or both nurse and patient. In particular, Orlando’s theory focuses on the nurse-patient relationship, how the relationship develops, and what occurs during the process of caring the patient. In the following, we will learn about Orlando’s educational influences, discuss and explore the recreation of Orlando’s theories. Ida Jean Orlando was born a first-generation Italian American on August 12, 1926. She received her nursing diploma from New York Medical College, Lower Fifth Avenue Hospital School of Nursing. While attending Saint John’s University for her Bachelor of Science in Nursing, she also worked in Maimonides Hospital, Brooklyn. After being dissatisfied with her experiences in nursing care by responding only to protocol and the rigidness of the institution’s policies; she eventually completed a Master’s of Science in Mental Health Consultation in Nursing from Teacher’s College, Columbia University in hopes to make a difference. She immediately became an associate professor and director of the Graduate Program in Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing at Yale University in 1954. One of her other roles as a project investigator of a National Institute of Mental Health grant entitled: Integration of Mental Health Concepts in a Basic Nursing Curriculum led her to the discovery of her theory. Orlando is one of the first theorists who wrote about the process of nursing that was based on her own research. She recognized that nursing could not be a profession unless it had a distinct function or goal. “Educating nurses on the patient’s health is significant but is inadequate. Nurses must go beyond the medical needs they must as well focus on caring for their patient. Orlando concludes that another task of professional nursing is to know the other needs of their patients besides medical help” (Orlando, 1990). She felt that without this revolution nurses would never be able to break out of their shadows as paraprofessionals. In 1961, Orlando published her theory in The Dynamic Nurse-Patient Relationship along with an article in the American Journal of Nursing, titled “The Patient: A Partner in his Care”. Her first book was based upon the observations of 2,000 nurse-patient interactions. Taking into account both the positive and negative practices of nurses, Orlando's analysis of the nurses' actual actions and reactions shaped the theory on a patient-centered nursing process. She deemed it important because “she observed that nurses were increasingly burdened with routine jobs and administration tasks that took more and more of their time away from giving genuine care to patients” (Orlando, 1972). The resulting theory is not only a guideline in proper nursing practice but also a critique on the mechanical ways that most nurses performed their responsibilities. This in turn, reduced the patient into an object rather than being treated as a human being. Carrying on as a Director of Research Project at The McLean Hospital in Belmont, MA, Orlando continued the development of her theoretical concept: Two Systems of Nursing in a Psychiatric Hospital which was later published 1972 titled: The Discipline and Teaching of Nursing System. In this theory, Orlando stresses the importance of open communication between nurses and patient’s alleviating any undue stresses that may occur during the nurse’s care. This is the core value of profession over the function of nurses. Along with the utilization of nursing process to generate optimistic results...