SPSS Statistics is a software package used for statistical analysis. It is now officially named "IBM SPSS Statistics". Companion products in the same family are used for survey authoring and deployment (IBM SPSS Data Collection), data mining (IBM SPSS Modeler), text analytics, and collaboration and deployment (batch and automated scoring services). Contents [hide]

1 Statistics program
2 Versions
2.1 Ownership history
3 Add-ons
4 Release history
5 See also
6 Notes
7 References
8 External links
[edit]Statistics program

SPSS (originally, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, later modified to read Statistical Product and Service Solutions) was released in its first version in 1968 after being developed by Norman H. Nie, Dale H. Bent and C. Hadlai Hull. SPSS is among the most widely used programs for statistical analysis in social science. It is used by market researchers, health researchers, survey companies, government, education researchers, marketing organizations and others. The original SPSS manual (Nie, Bent & Hull, 1970) has been described as one of "sociology's most influential books".[1] In addition to statistical analysis, data management (case selection, file reshaping, creating derived data) and data documentation (a metadata dictionary is stored in the datafile) are features of the base software. SPSS was released in its second version in 1972 and its company name is INDUS Nomi. Statistics included in the base software:

Descriptive statistics: Cross tabulation, Frequencies, Descriptives, Explore, Descriptive Ratio Statistics Bivariate statistics: Means, t-test, ANOVA, Correlation (bivariate, partial, distances), Nonparametric tests Prediction for numerical outcomes: Linear regression

Prediction for identifying groups: Factor analysis, cluster analysis (two-step, K-means, hierarchical), Discriminant The many features of SPSS are accessible via pull-down menus or can be programmed with a proprietary 4GL command syntax language....

...Trajico, Maria Liticia D.
BSEd III-A2
REFLECTION
The first thing that puffs in my mind when I heard the word STATISTIC is that it was a very hard subject because it is another branch of mathematics that will make my head or brain bleed of thinking of how I will handle it. I have learned that statistic is a branch of mathematics concerned with the study of information that is expressed in numbers, for example information about the number of times something happens. As I examined on what the statement says, the phrase “number of times something happens” really caught my attention because my subconscious says “here we go again the non-stop solving, analyzing of problems” and I was right. This course of basic statistic has provided me with the analytical skills to crunch numerical data and to make inference from it. At first I thought that I will be alright all along with this subject but it seems that just some part of it maybe it is because I don’t pay much of my attention to it but I have learned many things. I have learned my lesson.
During our every session in this subject before having our midterm examination I really had hard and bad times in coping up with this subject. When we have our very first quiz I thought that I would fail it but it did not happen but after that, my next quizzes I have taken I failed. I was always feeling down when in every quiz I failed because even though I don’t like this...

...Medical Statistics Practical 1
(IBM—SPSS – Statistics)
IBMSPSSStatistics version 20 [SPSS]:
IBMSPSS [Statistical Package for the Social Sciences] formerly called SPSS is a statistical
software. There are several versions but we will use version 20.
During the practical sessions you will use SPSS to define variables, enter data and carry out
descriptive (Frequencies and Percentages, Mean +/- SD) and Inferential statistics (Chi-Square, ttest, etc.)
Where can I get SPSS?
You will need to contact Information Solution and Services (ISS)
Why do I need to learn SPSS?
If you need to answer a research question, you will need to collect data, and then enter the data
using SPSS and finally you will need to analyze the data so you could explain the meaning of the
results.
In other words you will test the hypothesis and you will be able to reject or retain the null
hypothesis. To do this you will need to decide the type of data you need to collect, how are you
going to collected it and which analysis you will use?
SECTION 1
By the end of this section you will be able to:
Define variables and enter data in the SPSS data editor.
Save data
How to Open SPSS:
After you Logon. Double click the SPSS icon...

...techniques.
Firstly we look at data analysis. This approach starts with data that are manipulated or processed
into information that is valuable to decision making. The processing and manipulation of raw
data into meaningful information are the heart of data analysis. Data analysis includes data
description, data inference, the search for relationships in data and dealing with uncertainty
which in turn includes measuring uncertainty and modelling uncertainty explicitly.
In addition to data analysis, other decision making techniques are discussed. These techniques
include decision analysis, project scheduling and network models.
Chapter 1 illustrates a number of ways to summarise the information in data sets, also known as
descriptive statistics. It includes graphical and tabular summaries, as well as summary measures
such as means, medians and standard deviations.
Uncertainty is a key aspect of most business problems. To deal with uncertainty, we need a basic
understanding of probability. Chapter 2 covers basic rules of probability and in Chapter 3 we
discuss the important concept of probability distributions in some generality.
In Chapter 4 we discuss statistical inference (estimation), where the basic problem is to estimate
one or more characteristics of a population. Since it is too expensive to obtain the population
information, we instead select a sample from the population and then use the information in the
sample to infer the...

...of 1000 flights and proportions of three routes in the sample. He divides them into different sub-groups such as satisfaction, refreshments and departure time and then selects proportionally to highlight specific subgroup within the population. The reasons why Mr Kwok used this sampling method are that the cost per observation in the survey may be reduced and it also enables to increase the accuracy at a given cost.
TABLE 1: Data Summaries of Three Routes
Route 1
Route 2
Route 3
Normal(88.532,5.07943)
Normal(97.1033,5.04488)
Normal(107.15,5.15367)
Summary Statistics
Mean
88.532
Std Dev
5.0794269
Std Err Mean
0.2271589
Upper 95% Mean
88.978306
Lower 95% Mean
88.085694
N
500
Sum
44266
Summary Statistics
Mean
97.103333
Std Dev
5.0448811
Std Err Mean
0.2912663
Upper 95% Mean
97.676525
Lower 95% Mean
96.530142
N
300
Sum
29131
Summary Statistics
Mean
107.15
Std Dev
5.1536687
Std Err Mean
0.3644194
Upper 95% Mean
107.86862
Lower 95% Mean
106.43138
N
200
Sum
21430
From the table above, the total number of passengers for route 1 is 44,266, route 2 is 29,131 and route 3 is 21,430 and the total numbers of passengers for 3 routes are 94,827.
Although route 1 has the highest number of passengers and flights but it has the lowest means of passengers among the 3 routes. From...

...compliments the regular mathematics and therefore both are tested in primary schools. Mathematics is the written application of operation. It teaches students to think clearly, reason well and strategize effectively. Mental Mathematics is the ability to utilise mathematical skills to solve problems mentally. The marks scored by pupils generate statistics which are used by teachers to analyse a student’s performance and development of theories to explain the differences in performance.
The Standard 3 class is where the transition from junior to senior level occurs where teachers expect the transference of concrete to abstract thinking would have occurred.
A common theory by many primary school teachers is ‘Students perform better in Mathematics than Mental math. Mental math is something that has to be developed and involves critical thinking. Mental math requires quick thinking and the student must solve the problem in their minds whereas in regular mathematics, the problem can be solved visually. Therefore, teachers should take these factors into consideration while testing and marking students in these areas.’
In this study, the statistics of 30 students of a standard 3 class of San Fernando Boys’ Government School will be analysed to determine the truth of this theory.
DATA COLLECTION METHODS
Mathematics and mental mathematics marks of term 1 of the class of 2013 were obtained from a Standard 3 teacher of San Fernando Boys’...

...X= attitude towards the city
Y= duration of residence in that city
H0 = rXY=0 i.e there is NO relationship between the 2 continuous variables X and Y
Ha ≠0, there is a relationship between the 2 continuous variables X and Y
Analyze -> correlate -> bivariate
The SPSS output indicates that rXY has a value of .936. Clearly this value of rxy seems different from zero. However the question that arises is whether this value of rxy is statistically different from zero at 95% level of confidence.
There is a significant relationship between these two variables at 95% confidence as p-value is at .000 which is below 0.05. Hence we are therefore unable to retain H0 and thus we accept HA. Thus, we can infer at 95% level of confidence that in this sample, there is indeed a significant relationship between the two variables X and Y (i.e rXY is indeed different from zero). Assuming that this sample is a good representation of the target population, we extend this inference even to the target population. Hence, even in the target population there is indeed a significant positive relationship between the two variables X and Y (i.e rXY is indeed different from zero).
2. Multiple regression write up
y= attitude towards the city of residence (dependent variable)
x1 = duration of residence in the city (1st independen variable)
x2= importance associated with the weather in the city (2nd IV)
The initial model is: Y = β1 + β2.X1+ β3.X2
Step 1:
H0: R2= 0 i.e...

...NEGATIVELY-KEYED ITEMS AND REVERSE-SCORING
Many psychological questionnaires include a mixture of “positively-keyed” and “negatively-keyed” items, and this needs to be addressed before computing the scores on the questionnaires and before conducting any analyses. This handout describes the distinction between positively-keyed items and negatively-keyed items, it describes the logic of reverse-scoring, and it outlines SPSS steps to reverse-score negatively keyed items.
Positively-keyed items and negatively-keyed items
Positively-keyed items are items that are phrased so that an agreement with the item represents a relatively high level of the attribute being measured. For example, a self-esteem questionnaire might include an item such as “I like myself”, which is rated on a 5-point likert scale (1 = Strongly Disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3 = Neutral, 4 = Agree, 5 = Strongly Agree). This item is positively-keyed, because an Agreement or Strong Agreement with the item indicates a relatively high level of self-esteem (at least as compared to a Disagreement with the item).
Negatively-keyed items are items that are phrased so that an agreement with the item represents a relatively low level of the attribute being measured. For example, a self-esteem questionnaire might include an item such as “I dislike myself”, rated on the same 5-point scale (1 = Strongly Disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3 = Neutral, 4 = Agree, 5 = Strongly Agree). This item is...