2000BC- Beaker People ) lud garncarzy, Stonehenge, Tools made of iron: engineers skara brae – name of the best Neolithic village; that wasn’t a shelter, that was an ornament. 100-800BC – celtic supremacy, the filids (rituals and sacrifices), druids, bards, special alphabet named OGHAN. It was a very developing and mysterious culture. 55BC – Julius Caesar invades Britain
54BC – next invasion by Julius Caesar
43AD – Claudius invades Britain, radical change of lifestyle of celtic Britain. They wanted to convince celtic peope to their lifestyle. 60AD – resistance of Queen Boudicca : she was flogged and killed in a battle. The symbol of independence and glory. CHI-RHO – monogram , combination of CHRIST, the first symbol of early Christians. VACUUM PERIOD – the period in which there is no one to reign. ( before the anglo-saxon invasion). 449 AD – the first anglo-saxons invade the Britain ( the Angles, Saxons and Jutes) -these tribes were illiterate, tribal organization ,
- they destroyed political order in Britain
- destroyed economy, caused the immigration of british elite HEPTARCHY (7 kingdoms) Northumbria, mercia, east Anglia, Sussex, wessex, essex,kent. Witan- council of people who were king advisers: council of elders Fyrd – type of army ( armia kontraktowa); in time of war
the processes of unification: the bloody process; trail to unify 7 kingdoms to the only one. King Offa – the king of Mercia, he manages to unify 3 kingdoms : 796 – offa dies
794 – the first Scandinavian invasion – the Vikings attacked England. Vikings were very mobile people, they were sailing along the rivers, very clever people, DANES VIKINGS NORMANS – three Scandinavian tribes. after 850 – the regular large scale invasions
Danelaw – the land which was obtained by the Danes.
King Alfred the Great – king of Wessex; modernized the wessex defence and navy: he defended England when the country was invaded by Danes: he built shelters for people in that way the could hide in spite of the war. The second Viking epoch 991
The saxon king Ethelred: ( brother of Alfred the great) he decided to pay taxes the Vikings to stay away, that was called the DANEGELD. Canute the great 1016-35 – England is part of Danish Empire, is ruled dby the Scandinavian king, former of the law. Godwin and Canute ruled the Britain. Edward the Confessor – 1043 he become the king of England. He wanted to introduce the French culture to the English customs and living. Godwin wasn’t happy of the reign of Edward ( his daughter married Edward, that way he got chances to get a throne to his family. Harold – the king of England, the brother of Godwin 1066 after Edwards death. 14 october 1066 – the battle of Hastings: herald Hardrada landed in the north of England, then the Harold managed to the north to fight with his army. After that battle, William the Conqueror landed in the south of country, then Harold had to manage to the south to fight with his army. Unfortunately, Harold died in a battle of hastings. The army of Harold was exhausted and he failed. THIS is the end of anglo – Saxons period. THE REIGN OF William I (1066-1087)
- consolidation of power, building castles, creation of Domesday Book, he tried to convince people to become an owner of a land of England. - then he was able to divide country into pieces, he gave out land all over England to his nobles. He wanted to know exactly who owned which piece of land, and how much it was worth. He was sending his people to make a economic list. Domesday Book - One of the main purposes of the survey was to determine who held what and what taxes had been liable under Edward the Confessor; the judgment of the Domesday assessors was final—whatever the book said about who held the material wealth or what it was worth, was the law, and there was no appeal. Family of William I :
sons: Rufus and Henryk, William II Rufus, Henry I.
grandchildren: Stephen and Matilda.
Henry I –...