Reg. No. 11210708, Roll No. RE2208B65
LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY
A Humanoid Robot is a robot with its body shape built to resemble that of the human body. It is being developed to perform human task. In this paper, I have described the technical components of humanoid robot like sensors which are responsible to sense the environmental parameters and actuators which are responsible for the motion in the robot. In working and control mechanism, the theory of zero moment point explains the balance of humanoid robots during walking. Some humanoid robots like ASIMO and MYON which are developed to work in real-world environment. ASIMO has the ability to recognize moving objects and surrounding environment which enables it to interact with the humans. MYON is the first humanoid robot in the world which can be disassembled into the parts.
A Humanoid may be defined as something that resembles or looks like a human and having characteristics like opposable thumb, ability to walk in upright position, etc. Nowadays the concept of Humanoids is being widely implemented in Robotics and these robots are called Humanoid Robots or may be simply Humanoids. In general, Humanoid Robots have a torso, a head, two arms, and two legs. Fig.1 shows the ASIMO Humanoid Robot created by Honda which has the ability to walk or run on two feet at speeds up to 6 kilometer per hour.
Fig.1 ASIMO Humanoid Robot
A Humanoid robot is fully automated as it can adapt to its surroundings and continue with its goals. Some humanoid robots may also have a face, with eyes and mouth. Androids are humanoid robots built to resemble a male human and Gynoids are humanoid robots built to resemble a human female.
II. NEED OF HUMANOID ROBOTS
Humanoid robots are being developed to perform human tasks like personal assistance, where they should be able to assist the sick and elderly, and dirty or dangerous jobs. Humanoid robots are used as a research tool in several scientific areas and researchers need to understand the human body structure and behavior to build and study humanoid robots. Humanoid Robots can work in human environment without a need to adapt themselves or to change the environment. It is easier for a human being to interact with a human-like being.
III. TECHNICAL COMPONENTS
The two most important components of Humanoid Robots are Sensors and Actuators.
Sensors are the devices which sense something like environmental parameters like heat, sound, light, temperature, etc, physical and physiological parameters like movement, orientation, etc. Sensors can be classified as:
Proprioceptive sensors sense the position, the orientation and the speed of the humanoid's body and joints. Humanoid robots use accelerometers to measure the acceleration, from which velocity can be calculated by integration and tilt sensors to measure inclination. Force sensors which are placed in robot's hands and feet are used to measure the contact force with environment and position sensor that indicate the actual position of the robot or even speed sensors.
Extroceptive sensors consist of arrays of tactels (touch receptors) which are used to provide data on what is being touched, forces and torques transferred between robots and other objects. In humanoid robots vision is used to recognize objects and determine their properties. Vision sensors work most similarly to the eyes of human beings. Most humanoid robots use CCD cameras as vision sensors for capturing image information and microphones and speakers are used for sound reception and production respectively.
Actuators are the motors responsible for motion in the robot. Actuators are used to perform like joints and muscles. Mostly humanoid robots use rotator actuators to achieve the effects as human motion. The actuators can be pneumatic,...