Manpower planning or HR planning are synonymous. HR planning is more broad-based. Hereinafter, we will call it Human Resource Planning or HRP in short.
Human resource planning is the process of anticipating and carrying out the movement of people into, within, and out of the organization. Human resources planning is done to achieve the optimum use of human resources and to have the correct number and types of employees needed to meet organizational goals.
We also can say that, Human resource planning is the process of systematically reviewing human resource requirements to ensure that the required numbers of employees with the required skills are available when and where they are needed.
Human resource planning includes four factors:
Quantity: How many employees do we need?
Quality: Which skills, knowledge and abilities do we need?
Space: Where do we need the employees?
Time: When do we need the employees? How long do we need them?
Definition of Human Resources Planning (HRP)
HRP can be defined as the task of assessing and anticipating the skill, knowledge and labor time requirements of the organization, and initiating action to fulfill or ‘source” those requirements. Thus, if the organization as a whole or one of its subsystem is not performing to the benchmark, in other words, it is declining, it may need to plan a reduction or redeploys its existing labor force. On the other hand, if it is growing or diversifying, it might need to find and tap into a source of suitably skilled labor.
Let’s look into some definitions of HRP as given by different experts.
Coleman has defined HR/MP planning as “The Process of determining manpower requirements and the means for meeting those requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization.”
Stainer defines manpower planning as “Strategy for acquisition, utilization, improvement and preservation of an enterprise’s human resources.”
Vetter opines that it is the process by which management determines how the organization should move from its manpower position to its desired manpower position to carry out integrated plan of the organization.
According to Geisler, “Manpower planning is the process ' including forecasting, developing and controlling by which a firm ensures that it has-
• The right number of people,
• The right kind of people,
• At the right places,
• At the right time, doing work for which they are economically most useful”.
Wickstrom very beautifully summarizes the features of HRP,
Forecasting future manpower requirements, where we use mathematical projections, to project trends in the economic environment and development of the industry.
Making an inventory of present manpower resources and assessing the extent to which these resources are employed optimally. Procuring competent personnel requires positive recruitment efforts and the development of a variety of recruitment sources. These sources must consider not only the nature and conditions of the external labor market, but also the presence of qualified personnel who are available to fill vacancies through internal promotions or transfers.
Anticipating manpower problems by projecting present resources into the future and comparing them with the forecast of requirements to determine their adequacy, both quantitatively and qualitatively; and
Planning the necessary programs of requirement, selection, training, development, utilization, transfer, promotion, motivation and compensation to ensure that future manpower requirements are properly met.
We may figure out the leading features of HRP from mentioned definitions.
• It’s a systematic approach. Cause it ensures a continuous and proper staffing. It avoids or checks on occupational imbalances (shortage or surplus)...