Ans. Distinction between Personnel management & Human Resources management
The history of Human Resources management traces its roots to the erstwhile Personnel management that was prevalent in the companies of a few decades ago. Though the two terms ‘Personnel Management’ and ‘Human Resources Management’ are interchangeably used by most of the authors, there are key differentiators that make Personnel Management (PM) different from Human Resources Management (HRM). HRM is clearly based on the foundation of behavioural science knowledge relating to the handling of employees to motivate organizational goals. The focus is more proactive approach and pays attention to employee satisfaction and delight. Business goals and objectives and the strategies that will enable this to happen are the foundation for HRM. The basic philosophy is driven by the Theory Y approach where the belief is that people like to work and do not prefer t be supervised and made to perform. The employee becomes a champion for the organization and its product/service.
PM is that management style that deals with the control and reactive problem solving approach to resolve employee issues in a organizations. The philosophy for the PM approach relied on the Theory X approach that believed that people do not naturally like to work and need to be coerced to work and often need to be driven to work. Is more the ‘stick’ approach rather than ‘carrot’ approach. Rigid rules of do’s and dont’s exist and these provide the framework for employee’s behaviour at the workplace. Employee welfare and formal grievance systems play a significant role here and thereby managing industrial relations with high amount of trade union activity are highlighted.
Very few organizations today practice this style to people management, as the benefits and the long term gains from a HRM approach, impact business results far more. HRM emphasizes on training, as an important area of people management, which covers the following aspects:
1. Increasing productivity
2. Improving quality
3. Improving organizational climate
4. Ensuring personnel growth etc.
Q.2 Write a note on scope of HR in India.
Ans. Scope of HR in India
Contrary to these forces, in India the owner manager/government/public sector manager was an industry icon and a national hero of sorts. The Personnel Management practices were dominant of the ‘brick-and-motor’ industry. Though the approach was largely welfare oriented and reactive in nature it served effectively for the large PSU organizations that built the country’s foundation.
Its only in the past 10-12 years with the immense growth on account of the IT industry that winds of change began to blow. It was largely the advent of the Information Technology era in India that brought with it the western management practices. MNC’s (multinational companies) started up their operations in India. The FDI (foreign direct investment) went up steeply as the world saw the potential in the country’s human resources. India became a preferred location for MNC’s primarily from the USA, followed by other developed countries.
The gave birth to a new generation of management as well as HRM practices. New hiring methods, new ways of paying salaries, new employment terms and most importantly increased focus on individual performance and outcomes. There was emphasis on deliverables and linking individual and team performance to business results and success. Given the highly educated workforce there was a de-emphasis in the role of the trade unions. The era of the trade union dominance gave way to the new order of individual negotiated salaries and terms and clearly performance linked assessment systems. Another transformation that the Indian workplace witnessed was the focus on ethics and ethical practices in doing business. It was only fair to expect...