Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization by Elton Mayo
Chapter 1. FATIGUE. What Elton Mayo discovered and what undoubtedly is very significant is that man's attitude towards work and the relationships between the worker and the manager have features that are repeated in the U.S. and Soviet establishment. Fifty years ago it was thought that human problems corresponded to the specialist, is now beginning to consider in particular situations and contributes the effectiveness of any business manager and every economic expert. The authorities realized national lack of knowledge on the fundamental laws that govern human effectiveness; it shows the need for scientific studies on working hours and other working conditions capable of producing maximum performance. In 1917 created the Board of Industrial Fatigue Research. The industrial mechanism part mentions that the failure is not due to ignorance of the springs of production, is due to ignorance of the human conditions of continuous production. Have shown that fatigue is often associated with the formation of various chemicals such as hydrogen Sarcolactic; enthusiasts whose statements seemed to imply the possibility of a simple chemical discovery capable of banishing industrial fatigue. The attempt to calculate or perform tests on physiological fatigue in the industry took place with little success. In the factory, muscle fatigue and cannot be isolated in the laboratory, certain influences such as the ability and intelligence to rely on the correct functioning of the higher centers of the central nervous system. The word fatigue in industrial conditions we must remember that his character is very complex. Cathcart I conclude that fatigue is a normal physiological condition that can become pathological. Fatigue is reduced capacity for work. Some tests used to indirectly determine the degree of fatigue are:1. Variations in performance and quality of work performed. 2. lost time 3. Turnover. 4.Disease and mortality.5. Accidents. 6. Amount of effort. The work is something that is taken out to the worker as compensation for that loss vaguely conceived is paid a salary. The salary is paid for time lost and therefore must be continued, perhaps some of that conception of a continuous loss is at the root of economic and trade ideas fatigue. The work can only be done at steady state interruption in any ordinary industrial situation, not from a partial depletion of fuel reserves but any interference. Overall fatigue either of these causes is greater the closer the individual working full capacity. Chapter 2. What is Monotony?. The work can only be continued in a "steady state", the body can only respond to external stress while maintaining an internal balance between a large number of variables and interdependent factors, Dr. Cannon calls this condition "homeostasis". Repetition before the effort, boredom and monotony are factors to be taken into account before fatigue. Dr. Vernon, conducted a study on rest breaks in the industry, the other was to some observations on the effects of variety in the work of repetition. The objective conditions of modern industry shows a growing tendency to cause monotony, this is due to the higher working repeatability subdivision. Although such objective conditions lead to greater monotony, the monotony amount produced depends mainly on the attitude perhaps operator to work. While some find intolerable work others are relatively pleasant. The monotony and fatigue decreased production levels, monotony can be avoided to some extent by introducing rest breaks of fifteen minutes by averaging the corresponding period. The degree of boredom is somehow related to the degree of mechanization of the task. The chances of that happening are lower when: a) the work is entirely automatic, the operator can handle conversations with other workers, b) when the focus is fully on the task. We need to know exactly, the external conditions of work, personal status within...
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