Human development index
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education and standards of living for countries worldwide. It is a standard means of measuring well-being, especially child welfare. It is used to distinguish whether the country is a developed, a developing or an underdeveloped country, and also to measure the impact of economic policies on quality of life. The index was developed in 1990 by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and Indian economist Amartya Sen. Old method (before 2010 Report)
The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: *
Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity *
Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weighting) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio (with one-third weighting). *
Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity.
New method (2010 Report onwards)
Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), starting with the 2010 Human Development Report the HDI combines three dimensions: * A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth
* Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling * A decent standard of living: GNI per capita (PPP US$)
Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age. Childhood mortality is the death of a child before its fifth birthday. National statistics tend to group these two mortality rates together. Ninety-nine percent of these deaths occur in developing nations. Infant mortality takes away society’s potential physical, social, and human capital. Generally the most common cause worldwide has been dehydration from diarrhea, a preventable disease; however, a variety of programs combating this problem have decreased the rate of children dying from dehydration. Many factors contribute to infant mortality such as the mother’s level of education, environmental conditions, and political and medical infrastructure. Improving sanitation, access to clean drinking water, immunization against infectious diseases, and other public health measures could help reduce high rates of infant mortality. The U.S. National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD) has made great strides in lowering U.S. infant mortality rates. Since the institute was created the U.S. infant mortality rate has dropped 70 percent, in part due to their research.
Infant mortality rate
Infant mortality rate (IMR) is the number of deaths of children less than one year of age per 1000 live births. The rate for a given region is the number of children dying under one year of age, divided by the number of live births during the year, multiplied by 1,000.
Forms of infant mortality:
* Neonatal mortality is newborn death occurring within 28 days postpartum. Neonatal death is often attributed to inadequate access to basic medical care, during pregnancy and after delivery. This accounts for 40-60% of infant mortality in developing countries. * Post neonatal mortality is the death of children aged 29 days to one year. The major contributors to post neonatal death are malnutrition, infectious disease, and problems with the home environment. * Prenatal mortality is late fetal death (22 weeks gestation to birth), or death of a newborn up to one week postpartum. Literacy
Literacy is the ability to read and write one's own name and further for knowledge and interest, write coherently, and think critically about the written word. The inability to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism. Visual literacy includes in addition the ability to understand all forms of communication, be it body language, pictures, maps, or video. Evolving definitions of literacy often include all the symbol systems relevant to a particular community. Literacy...
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