Introduction to HCI
What is HCI?
The study of how people interact with computers and to what extent computers are or are not developed for successful interaction with human beings.
•What is HCI?
“Human-computer interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them”
(ACM SIGCHI definition of HCI).
•Creating usable systems (1)
•HCI investigates interaction between
•Human (1 user, a group, sequence of users)
•Computer (any computer big or small, process control, embedded, etc) •
•used to perform various tasks
•in particular environments.
•Creating usable systems (2)
•The human factors …
•different conceptions or mental models about their interactions •different ways of learning, keeping knowledge and skills
•cultural and national differences
•user preferences change as they gradually master new interfaces •Creating usable systems (3)
•The computer factor …
•Smart phones, Touch Screen Kiosks, …
•different capabilities and limitations
•Computing power, Input/output devices, …
•different operating systems
•user interface technology is changing rapidly
•it offers new interaction possibilities to which previous research findings may not apply •Visual, Tactile, Gesture based, …
•Creating usable systems (4)
•What about the interaction?
•Communication between user and computer
•Dialogue with feedback
•Control throughout performance of the task
•Intelligent sensors controlling the environment
•Creating usable systems (5)
•It aims to achieve
1.Usability (Useful, Usable, Used)
•Creating usable systems (6)
•Work flow compatibility
•Creating usable systems (7)
•HCI focuses on user needs by assessing interface design & implementation according to usability criteria. ●
•Makes use of new, novel techniques & technologies.
•It applies usability design principles to achieve more productive & usable systems and more satisfied users. •
•Creating usable systems (8)
•EC Directive 90/270/EEC
•Requires employers to ensure the following when designing, selecting, commissioning or modifying software: •
•suitable for the task
•easy to use
•where appropriate, adaptable to user’s knowledge & experiences •Creating usable systems (9)
•provides feedback on performance
•displays information in a format & at a pace that is adapted to the user •It must conform to the principles of software ergonomics
•(Ergonomics is the science that deals with the interaction between people/work/environment/psychology. It considers the functions of the human body in the design of tools, equipment, etc.) •Designers & employers can no longer afford to ignore the user!! •Question …
•Have you ever used a system that exhibit good HCI with the users? •Give a few examples …
•What systems have you used that exhibit bad HCI with the users? •Name a few … and why do you think they were bad?
•Historical basis of HCI (1)
•Second World War …
•Study of interaction between humans & machines in order to produce more effective weapons (Bletchley Park, Enigma, Colossus) •
•Ergonomic Research Society formed (1949)
•Research in Man-Machine Interaction began to spread
•Historical basis of HCI (2)
•Historical basis of HCI (3)
•Historical basis of HCI (4)
•Basic Interaction (1)
•Graphical Objects manipulated by a pointing device (light pen) •Objects could be selected, moved, resized, etc.
•1966 (Imperial College, London)
•Icons, Gesture Recognition, Dynamic Menus, etc.
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