A very usual form to face the personnel decisions search is to hope that a vacancy takes place. This method, that can be effective for small companies, it will not be very useful in complex organizations that require personnel with very specific characteristics. Therefore in large and complex companies it is best to forecast future needs of employees (Smith, Boroski, & Davis, 1992).
By Employment Planning, it will be understood all those activities of personnel that attempt to provide the human resources necessary to achieve the present and future organizational objectives. It implies to consider the necessities, within different periods from time (one, three, five years), of the employees of different types and levels (for the different areas and for the strategic, managerial and operative levels) (Smith et al., 1992).
Once these necessities have been established, the company will have to compare them with the availabilities, that is to say, with the number of current employees. This will determine the number and type of employees that must be hired. On the contrary, if executives/managers/owners observe that in some areas or departments are surpluses, will the possibility of reassigning staff to other positions, previously made the necessary training. If there are no possible reallocations, the final decision for those people will be the dismissal which should be considered as a last resort. If implemented, it must admit possibilities of technical assistance of the company to facilitate conditions of employability to those employees (Smith et al., 1992).
The employment planning process in a company tries to balance the staffing needs over time taking into consideration the necessities that the company might have later. The challenge is to achieve this 'scenario', considering that the demand of human resources that correspond to the necessities and the supply that represent the availabilities, have, each one, their own dynamics (Smith et al., 1992).
The demand for human resources should be based on planning and budgets of the company. Therefore, the human recourses plan must have a proper consideration of all strategic decisions that affect, in the period covered by the plan, the number and quality of staff required by strategic decisions. as examples of these: * General economic forecasts
* Forecasts of technological changes
* Plans for investment in plants, equipment, machinery, involving changes in the company structure. * Planned activities own of the company, sub-contracted activities, and their changes.
The incidence of these and other relevant forecasts should be reflected in the staffing requirements of different types and levels. It can be seen here a very important point that indicates the necessary relationship of the HR function with the strategic planning of the organization. It has been common practice in many companies the personnel function is located in a second or third level of the hierarchy and, therefore, does not have enough influence or participation in strategic processes to address their remarks to the achievement of the required personnel. As is easy to understand, this can have serious consequences, or at least not allow early detection of potential problems and their possible solutions. "Through effective HR planning, HR professionals can play a significant role in executing business strategy and aligning HR practices to business needs" (Smith et al., 1992, p.1) .
Personnel planning is the process of anticipating and preventing the movement of people into the organization, within it and out. Its purpose is to use these resources as efficiently as possible, where and when needed, to achieve the goals of the organization. Strategic Human Resource Planning
As organizations plan their future, human resource managers must worry about mixing human resource planning with strategic business planning. A successful human...