How to Write an Academic Paper

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The Essay

If you can write a good paragraph, you should be able to write a good essay (composition). The difference is that the essay requires(требует) more material and more planning. The principles of unity and coherence are basically the same.

|A paragraph has |An essay has | |A topic sentence |An essay sentence | |A controlling idea |A (essay) thesis statement | |Every sentence supports the topic sentence and the controlling idea |Every paragraph supports the essay sentence and the essay statement | |Basic materials of a paragraph development are details, reasons, and |Basic materials of an essay development are paragraphs of details, | |illustrations |reasons, and illustrations | |Sentences are composed and arranged in a plan of major and minor |Paragraphs are composed and arranged in a plan of major and minor | |supports |supports | |Sentences are linked together with appropriate means of coherence |Paragraphs are arranged and linked together with appropriate means of | | |coherence |

Most academic writing is longer than one paragraph. In fact, paragraphs are usually building blocks(строительнные блоки) for essays. An essay is a group of paragraphs about one topic. Like a good paragraph, a good essay is unified and coherent. To achieve unity and coherence in both you can use the same techniques. You can classify essays and paragraphs according to the same purposes (process, cause/effect, etc.), but an essay contains more details and examples than a paragraph. Therefore, it is a larger piece of writing(это больший кусок информации). To guide(руководство) readers through a piece of writing presented in an essay, a writer can provide(обеспечит) four basic kinds of signals: (1) Thesis and forecasting statements, to orient the readers to ideas and organization; (2) paragraphing, to group related (взаимосвязанный) ideas and details; (3) cohesive devices, to connect ideas to one another and bring about coherence and clarity; (4) transitions, to signal relationships or shifts in meaning. Each essay has three major parts: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. These parts correspond to the three major parts of the paragraph, but they are longer. An essay’s introductory paragraph contains some general statements about the essay topic as its thesis statement (тезис, положение, тема очерка, сочинения) or its main idea. Each paragraph in the body(текст) of an essay supports the thesis statement. Each contains a topic sentence and major, and minor supporting sentences that are linked together coherently and that develop the essay topic. The essay’s conclusion, like the paragraph’s concluding sentence summarizes the essay’s main ideas and brings it to an end. The thesis statement of an essay is similar in purpose to the topic sentence of a paragraph. It presents the topic and the controlling idea for the whole essay. The thesis statement also often acts as a guide to other important information: (1) the purpose and corresponding organizational structure of the essay (2) the writer’s point of view or opinion about the topic To help readers find their way in a written work, the writer can provide two kinds of orienting information: thesis statements that declare...
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