The positive impacts to biodiversity of plantation Trees used in plantations may have more conservation value than existing vegetation such as pasture, also it may improve downstream water quality and provide habitat for aquatic biota. Moreover, it will sequester carbon and hence contribute to mitigating or reducing climate change. The plantation may lead to reduced pressure on the harvest of rainforests elsewhere. Most importantly, Biopact (2008) explained that the farmers relied upon the leaf litter from the surrounding production forests to produce mulch for their crops, rather than using costly fertilizers.
The negative impacts of plantation are the weeds and feral animals harboured by plantations may invade remnant forests. Also, plantation agriculture can also damage the natural environment and destroy the habitats of the people and other living things whose survival depends on the forest. In order to clear land for plantations, heavy machinery are used and it can clear thousands of hectares of forests. RedOrbit (2012) claimed that the Poorly planned plantation result in needless land clearing and increase the invasive species and damage the natural ecological processes. The large-scale clearing of land damages the natural environment and destroys the habitats of people and other living things. The plantation also causes the air pollution because of the deforestation.. If the soils become infertile, the yields of crops will be lower. It will be cause the loss of livelihoods. In addition, exotic tree species used in plantations may invade native forests. it may become a risk of species invading native forests or genetic introgression into local populations of trees, and the plantations may harbour weeds and feral animals.