How African States Deal with the Relationship Between Environment and Development.

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Explain how African states deal with the relationship between environment and development?

Contents
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1. Abstract3
2. Introduction 3
3. Historical Context 4
4. Current Perspectives 5
5. Malawi – Introduction 6
6. Background 7
7. Policy Action linking environment and development 8 8. Public Policy in Malawi 8
9. Policy process in Malawi9
10. Role of Leadership 9
11. Legislation in Malawi 10
12. Environment and Finance 12
13. Case study – Balaka 13
14. Conclusion (Malawi) 14
15. Mali – Introduction 14
16. Natural environment, Natural Resources 15
17. Natural resources Conservation and development 16 18. Policy Initiatives 16
19. Gender and Development 17
20. Civil society and NGOs 17
21. Sustainable Livelihoods 18
22. Conclusion 18
23. References 19

Abstract
Africa has been at the fore of both development and environmental degradation. Too much activity has been happening at an alarming pace in a bid to realise an improved standard of living and emancipation from the quagmire of poverty. Development is a process that equips people to improved standards of living. Long term development can only come about through sustainable management of various assets such as finances, material, human, social, and natural. Natural assets, including soil, water, plants, and animals are central to peoples livelihoods. On the other hand environmental mismanagement and degradation undermines development and threatens future development headway.

INTRODUCTION
Environment is a system which provides natural surroundings for the existence oforganisms (including humans) and which is a prerequisite for their further evolution.Abiotic components of environment (atmosphere, water, minerals, energy etc.) and biotic components of environment (organisms – from the simplest to the most complex) are its main elements. To summarize, it is all which surrounds us. It is noteworthy that this is essentially an anthropocentric (non-biological) definition perceiving environment as one in which a man can live. The opinions on what development is to actually mean have passed great evolution in thelast half of century according toBond (2002), and there is no consensus on how to define this notion at present. Bond (2002), further states that thecauses of this differentiation can be found in the historical contexts of the approaches todevelopment. Economic growth was regarded as central to the development endeavoursup to the 1980's. Gradually, development came to be interpreted as multidimensionalconcept which should encompass material, social, environmental, political and culturalcomponents (with all of them having a direct impact on the quality of human life). Thisway it was recognised that there is no single model of development appropriate anddesirable for all countries. At the same time emerged the idea of „sustainabledevelopment“, emphasising the questions related to demographic processes, considerateuse of natural resources and mutual influences between a human and his livingenvironment. According to the World Bank report 2009, without ecosystems, there would be no life. Ecosystems provide the food we eat and thematerials we use for shelter and fuel, and theyensure the quality of the air we breathe andthe water we drink. Yet in Africa and aroundthe world we are seeing an unprecedenteddecline in the state of our environment as aresult of humanity’s escalating demand fornatural resources. Erosion of natural capitalis endangering our future prosperity andundermining efforts to enable Africa’s growingpopulation to move out of poverty. The relationship between environment and development continues to be a dilemma for most African states. Africa in its...
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