City for better environment
Ar. Raihana Pervin
Lecturer, Department of Architecture, Bangladesh University
Engr. Sheikh Ashraf Uz Zaman
Deputy Manager, Titas Gas Transmission and Distribution Company Limited
Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is the city with highest population growth in the world. Due to increasing urbanization the city is facing tremendous pressure on its basic utility services. Household waste management is also a big problem in the city. Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) collects 42% solid waste and dumps in the dumping sites. Rest of the waste remains unmanaged in the source place and deposit sites. Proper management of this waste is required to keep the environment healthy. Moreover, waste is not a waste only. Some waste can be converted into energy, some waste can be recycled, and some can be used for land filling. Now a day, the disposal and/or use of waste is burning issue in the perspective of environment. This paper addresses mainly two issues; Dhaka city’s present situation of household waste collection and its management. The study is mainly based on review and analysis of different literature and documents from concern authorities. In conclusion, the paper suggests some solution to current waste management problems.
Globalization, which is considered as an economic revolution for the developing world has created some troubling concerns in Bangladesh. One such concern is its impact on urbanization and the consequences that go with it. In the context of Bangladesh, it is like fueling the already unprecedented urban growth phenomenon and increasing the challenges that go with it. One key challenge is the management of municipal household waste. Household waste refers to waste material usually generated in the residential environment. Household waste is mainly classified in to two groups; organic and inorganic waste. Organic waste comprise of food and vegetables waste and other kitchen waste. On the other hand, inorganic waste comprises of plastic, glass, papers, etc Though Bangladesh is still a relatively low urbanized country comparing to other developing countries, the rate of urban population growth is very alarming. In 1974 only 8.8% of the population lived in urban areas. But in 2001 it reached the value 23.4%. If we compare it to more recent years, the percentages of urbanization is now over 25% and the growth rate is more than 3.5% per year. The city at present time houses around 12 million residents. The per capita household waste generation in Dhaka is around 0.34 kg per day which constitutes 1,950 ton household waste per day in the city. (Source: The study on the solid waste management of Dhaka city, Final Report, Volume 1) Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) is now collecting only 44 % of the generated volume. This means more than half of waste is not properly collected and disposed at official dump sites. Uncollected waste has been recognized as the root of inferior environment such as scattered garbage, offensive odor; drain clogging, water pollution and mosquitoes. DCC has three disposal dump site at Matuail (capacity 65 % of the total collected waste), Berri Band ( 30 %) and at Uttara (5 %).
1. Present Situation of Solid Waste management in dhaka city A. Primary Collection
Task distribution in Waste Collection: Dhaka City Corporation Ordinance is the basic law regarding street/drain cleaning, waste collection and transportation. DCC provides dustbins or other receptacles at suitable places. Residents bring their waste to the dustbins or receptacles. DCC is responsible for secondary waste collection to remove waste from its dustbins/containers, and transport the waste to final disposal sites.
Figure 1. Waste Collection System in Dhaka City
• Private Initiative in Primary Waste Collection: It is commonly observed that Non Government Organization (NGO), Community Based Organization (CBO) or...