The earliest evidence of technological progress in the India is to be found in the remains of Harappan civilization (4000-3000 BC.). Archaeological remains point to the existence of well planned urban centres the boasted of private and public dwelling laid out in orderly fashion along with roads and drainage systems completing them. The drainage systems are particularly remarkable for the times since they are built underground and constructed in a manner to allow for regular cleaning. The small drains from privates homes connected to the larger public drains while the larger dwellings are invariably multi-storied and all homes were constructed from standardized fired and provided for separate cooking areas and toilets. Storage facilities for grains and goods for trade were built as a public baths and other building intended for various public function. And the urban centres planned riverine or sea-ports with accurate weights and measures were in use and ports such as lothal were developed as export centres of early manufactured products form smelted copper and bronze. Kilns for smelting copper ingots and casting tools were in existence as were metal tools such as curved or circular saws, pierced needles and most significantly, bronze drills with twisted grooves. The drill enabled the production of items with unparallel precision for the times and could be regarded as an ancient precursor of the modern machine tool. There is also evidence of planned irrigation systems and it’s appears that fire and flood control measures to protect farms and villages were also in decorated in a variety of colours and design. Cotton was grown and used to produce textiles. LEARNING INSIGHT: In their technology they well planned what they needs or priority. They choose what they much needed or uses, and every technology they think if that technology can contribute them a lot. Like they created a drainage system that very useful for their regular cleaning, I learned in their technology that every uses is important so that we don’t waste a money, time to create a particular technology and effort. Definition and boundary
India is the second most populous country in the world. It is also sometimes called Bharat, its ancient name. India’s land frontier stretches from the Arabian Sea on the west to the Bay of Bengal on the east and touches Pakistan, west China, Nepal and northeast and Myanmar, east. New Delhi is India’s capital and Mumbai that formerly Bombay its largest city. The southern half of India is a largely upland area that thrusts a triangular peninsula into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west and has a coastline; at its southern tip is Kanniyakumri (Cape Comorin). In the north, towering above peninsular India, is the Himalayan mountain wall, where rise the three great rivers of the Indian subcontinent-the Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra. The Gangetic alluvial plain, which has much of India's arable land, lies between the Himalayas and the dissected plateau occupying most of peninsular India. The Aravalli range, a ragged hill belt, extends from the borders of Gujarat in the southwest to the fringes of Delhi in the northeast. The plain is limited in the west by the Thar (Great Indian) Desert of Rajasthan, which merges with the swampy Rann of Kachchh to the south. The southern boundary of the plain lies close to the Yamuna and Ganges river; where the broken hills of the Chambal, Betwa, and Son rivers rise to the low plateaus of Malwa in the west and Chota Nagpur in the east. The Narmada River, south of the Vindhya hills, marks the beginning of the Deccan. The triangular plateau, scarped by the mountains of the Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats, is drained by the Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri rivers; they break through the Eastern Ghats and, flowing east into the Bay of Bengal, form broad deltas on the wide...
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