Hospital Waste Management

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Hospital waste management
By Karthik Kesar P S
Ramkumar K
Genevious Daniel

Introduction
Hospital waste management is one of the most critical and yet underrated kind of waste management .The growing number of hospitals and the unhealthy eating habits of the people has contributed to the rising number of patients in hospitals. Wastes that are improperly disposed lead to spreading of infection. This will lead to the unhealthy society as a whole. Modern day societies place high importance on preventing the manufacturing of plastic and its By-products but they overlook the importance of collecting and disposing the existing plastic products that are in circulation. This is applicable for the hospital waste management as well. Hence it is imperative to focus and understand the procedures used for hospital waste management.

Functions
The hospital waste management process contains the following stages. Stage 1: [Acquiring the contract]
The hospital invites tenders from prospective waste management agencies via newspaper agencies. Hospital follows a strict selection procedure which includes the experience of the agencies eco friendliness and regulatory constraints. Some of the constraints are * Number of workers deployed in the site of waste management * The precautionary measures taken by each worker deployed * Removal of waste on weekly basis

* Proper reusability of waste

Stage 2: [Resource Allocation]
Resource will be allocated based on the waste generated by the hospital on day to day basis. Now generally the agency calculates the amount of waste based on the bed capacity on the respective hospitals. Ex: St.John’s medical college hospital which is located in Hosur main road, Koramangala is one of the biggest hospitals in Bangalore and it has 2500 beds and generates a lot of hospital waste.

Stage 3: [Collecting the waste]
Hospitals give a separate area in their premises to the agency to segregate the waste generated by them. The ward boys collect the waste on an hourly basis. The collected waste is disposed into two distinctive bags namely red color for Bio-hazardous waste and yellow for non- hazardous waste. The agencies collect the waste from this segregated area.

Stage 4: [Segregation]
The waste collected in Red and Yellow bags will be further segregated based on the composition of that particular waste. Bio-hazardous waste such as needles, amputated limbs and any other material that was contaminated by blood are first sorted and packed in special containers. These containers are sent to a place located in the outskirts of the city for final disposable.

State authorities in India have made several strategic decisions pertaining to HCW management. One decision was how to refine the technology options included in the Biomedical Waste Rules. Although the rules list incineration as an option for certain categories of BMW, concerted efforts by NGOs—including Srishti, Toxic Link, and Jyotsna Chauhan Associates—and the press have convinced some SPCBs to rule out the use of onsite incineration. In the State of Andhra Pradesh, for example, where most health care facilities are in the heart of cities, the Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board prohibited incineration at health care facilities in the entire state after considering the potential adverse impacts of pollutant emissions from substandard incinerators. The Kerala Pollution Control Board recently opted for autoclaving and deep burial of BMWs instead of incineration. The Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board has banned incineration of BMWs—except for body parts and human tissues— in favor of autoclaving and sanitary land filling.

National and state authorities have made some technology choices for HCW management taking into account human health impacts in urban and rural areas. The Biomedical Waste Rules specify that incineration is the disposal scheme required...
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