History of Zero
Ivanna Villanueva Bobadilla
14-0163
Mathematics I
Friday, September 20, 2013

The number zero is one digit we use on a daily basis. It has a lot of significance to us since we can remember. This digit is used as a placeholder in the place value system. Zero is a number that plays an important role in the mathematics areas, such as integers, real numbers and other algebraic structures. Zero is completely null in some mathematical procedures, is not positive nor negative and everything multiplied, divided or to the power of zero is always going to be ZERO. The number can change a whole amount, making it larger. Just imagine adding zeros to your checks, making it bigger. According to Yale Global Online, published by MacMillan Center, from placeholder to the driver of calculus, zero has crossed the greatest minds and most diverse borders since it was born many centuries ago. Today, zero is perhaps the most pervasive global symbol known. In the story of zero, something can be made out of nothing. Understanding and working with zero is the basis of our world today; without zero we would lack calculus, financial accounting, the ability to make arithmetic computations quickly, and especially in today's connected world, computers. The story of zero is the story of an idea that has aroused the imagination of great minds across the globe.

I totally agree with every fact expressed above, because it is true that zero has become one of the most important numbers today. Without it, we would lack a lot of important elements in math. When anyone thinks of one hundred, two hundred, or seven thousand the image in his or her mind is of a digit followed by a few zeros. As I explained in the first paragraph, zero is a placeholder; imagine adding a few zeros to your salary! According to John Matson in his article “The Origin of Zero”, the number zero arrived in West Circa 1200, most famously delivered by Italian mathematician...

...From placeholder to the driver of calculus, zero has crossed the greatest minds and most diverse borders since it was born many centuries ago. Today, zero is perhaps the most pervasive global symbol known. In the story of zero, something can be made out of nothing.
Zero, zip, zilch - how often has a question been answered by one of these words? Countless, no doubt. Yet behind this seemingly simple answer conveying nothing lays the story of an idea that took many centuries to develop, many countries to cross, and many minds to comprehend. Understanding and working with zero is the basis of our world today; without zero we would lack calculus, financial accounting, the ability to make arithmetic computations quickly, and, especially in today's connected world, computers. The story of zero is the story of an idea that has aroused the imagination of great minds across the globe.
When anyone thinks of one hundred, two hundred, or seven thousand the image in his or her mind is of a digit followed by a few zeros. The zero functions as a placeholder; that is, three zeroes denotes that there are seven thousands, rather than only seven hundreds. If we were missing one zero, that would drastically change the amount. Just imagine having one zero erased (or added) to your salary! Yet, the number system we use today - Arabic, though...

...HISTORY OF ZERO
This essay summarises the development of zero, as both digit and number, from early to modern civilisations. More willing to accept the concept of void, the Eastern civilisations are credited with the invention of zero. The Western civilisations, on the other hand, struggled for almost two millennia to finally accept zero.
The history of zero from merely a placeholder in place value systems (digit) to finally becoming accepted as a number has a very long history in Western civilisations. This was mainly due to their strong rejection of the concept of void. The Eastern civilisations, fortunately, were never so fearful of the idea of void, which was in fact strongly intertwined in their religion (Seife, 2000, p. 65). It is therefore not surprising that zero was first invented in the East. From the 5th century BC, the Babylonians had used zero placeholder in their base-60 number system (Boyer, 1991, p. 31). In this system, diagonal double wedges were used to represent empty placeholder (see figure 1). Using their base-20 counting system, the Mayans were the first civilisation whose counting system started with zero, not one (Kaplan, 1999, p. 82). Unfortunately, their isolation from other civilisations meant that their more sensible system never spread outside Central America.
Figure 1....

...0 (zero; BrE: /ˈzɪərəʊA/ or AmE: /ˈziːroʊ/) is both a number[1] and the numerical digitused to represent that number in numerals. It fulfills a central role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers, and many other algebraic structures. As a digit, 0 is used as a placeholder in place value systems. In the English language, 0 may be called zero, nought or (US) naught /ˈnɔːt/, nil, or — in contexts where at least one adjacent digit distinguishes it from the letter "O" — oh or o /ˈoʊ/. Informal or slang terms for zero include zilch and zip.[2] Ought or aught /ˈɔːt/ has also been used historically.[3] (See Names for the number 0 in English.)
History
Egypt
nfr
heart with trachea
beautiful, pleasant, good
Ancient Egyptian numerals were base 10. They used hieroglyphs for the digits and were not positional. By 1740 BCE the Egyptians had a symbol for zero in accounting texts. The symbol nfr, meaning beautiful, was also used to indicate the base level in drawings of tombs and pyramids and distances were measured relative to the base line as being above or below this line.[12]
Mesopotamia
By the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, the Babylonian mathematics had a sophisticated sexagesimal positional numeral system. The lack of a positional value (or zero) was indicated by a space between sexagesimal numerals. By 300 BC, a punctuation symbol (two slanted...

...Zero is a unique number that means “empty space” and that which represents a number and its use for computation. It was conceived from the Hindus from India. The earliest recorded evidence was found on the Gvalior inscription, however, the zero we are accustomed to today, came much later.
Zero has two basic uses: to mean empty space or to represent a number used for computation. It is especially important in positional notations. Positional notations, is a numerical system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier (ex. 10). Positional notations require an indication of the number zero because zero is a placeholder. It allows us to tell the different between 23, 203, and 230. Without zero, it would be impossible to tell them apart. The decimal system, for example, uses 10 as a base, and zero is required for 10 to be the base. Otherwise, it would just be a “1”.
According to records, Babylonians were the first to use symbols for numbers. They used wedge-shaped symbols and the sexagesimal base system which dated back to over 4000 years ago. There was, however, no symbol for indicating an empty position. There are a few occasions in their system when an empty position is needed, and the early Babylonians relied on context to make clear the value of the number system written.
The Egyptians also used a symbolic number system but their system was...

...credit goes to INDIA for the invention of ZERO and its effects use as a number. In the beginning it was shown in the form of DOT or sometimes by a circle. It was known by the name “SHUNYA” meaning nothing in Sanskrit.
Historians believed that it came into existence from 458 A.D.
Most of the number and problems were written in verses form (Known as SLOKA in Sanskrit) or in the basis of natural things.
For Ex: Moon and Earth represents the Number 1, Eyes represents the Number 2, Indians were the First to introduce Base 10 system for the calculations.
The opinion of historians says that the invention and application of Zero made effectively in and application of Zero made effectively in India because of the non availability of counting instruments ‘abacus’ which was popular during that period in different countries. The dependency to write the number for commercial purpose many be the main reason for its invention in India. The great mathematician of IndiaBrahmagupta (Born in Multan and lived during 598-660 A.D) wrote on nature of Zero in his book “Bramhagupta Siddhanth”
1) A + 0 = A
2) A – 0 = A
3) A × 0 = 0
4) A / 0 = 0
His first 3 formulas were correct but he failed to express the product of 4th one. He told it as Zero instead of Infinity. Later it was solved by another famous Indian mathematician Bhaskar (1114 A.D – 1185A.D) who born at Bijapur in Karnataka. It was mentioned in his...

...was no zero. Of course people knew if they had nothing, but there was no mathematical notation for it. Zero was independently invented only three times.
The first recorded zero is attributed to the Babylonians in the 3rd century BC. A long period followed when no one else used a zero place holder. But then the Mayans, halfway around the world in Central America, independently invented zero in the fourth century CE. The final independent invention of zero in India was long debated by scholars, but seems to be set around the middle of the fifth century. It spread to Cambodia around the end of the 7th century. From India it moved into China and then to the Islamic countries. Zero finally reached western Europe in the 12th century.
In today's modern mathematics, we have become accustomed to zero as a number. It's hard to believe that most ancient number systems didn't include zero. The Mayan civilization may have been among the first to have a symbol for zero. The Mayas flourished in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico about 1300 years ago. They used the as a placeholder, in a vertical place-value system. It is considered one of their cultures greatest achievements.
The ancient Egyptians, Romans, and Greeks alike had no symbol for zero. In Greek geometry, zero and irrational numbers were impossible. The Greeks...

...Paper - I
1. Sources: Archaeological sources:Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas: Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire: Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka;...

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