The History of Kazakhstan
The history of the Kazakh land began with the appearance of the human race in the Stone Age. 2.
The ancient nomadic tribes called "saki" inhabited steppes of Kazakhstan in the first millennium В. C. 3. They had high level of material culture, developed trades and the production of iron and bronze weapons and developed fine arts ("beast style"). 4. Another big ancient tribe of that time was "usuni". 5. These two tribes had the most considerable influence upon the formation of the ancient Turkic nomadic tribes. 6.
In A. D. the VI-IX centuries some Turkic states - khaganates (among them West-Turkic khaganate, Turgesh, Kharluc khanates) appeared on the territory of Kazakhstan. 7.
In the X century when the Turkic tribes invaded the capital of Kharluc khaganate Balasagun, the state of Karakhanids (940-1212) the first Muslim Turkic state was formed. 8.
At that period there were a lot of flourishing cities (Otrar, Suzak, Sauran, Djent and others) with a high level of culture, developed trade and handicrafts on the territory of Kazakhstan. 9.
The mongol invasion into the Central Asia led by Chingizkhan started at the beginning of the XIII century. 10.
In 1218 Chingizkhan conquered Semirechie and started the siege of Otrar, which did not surrender to him; after six months of defense Otrar surrendered and Chingizkhan ordered his warriors to annihilate all the population of the city. 11.
At last in the forties of the XII century Kazakh land were included in the Gold Horde. 12.
The restoration of the farm economy and the reconstruction of the cities began in the XII-XIV centuries. 13.
The preconditions for the formation of Kazakh nationality out of different Turkic tribes had appeared by the XV century.
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