HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING IN NEPAL AND CHINA
History of nursing can be described with the role of Florence Nightingale, who was born in Italy on 12 May 1820. In 1837, whilst in the gardens at Emblem, she had what she described as her “calling” the voice of God calling to do her work but she had no idea what that work was & then she developed on interest i.e. visiting to the home of the sick in the local villages & began to investigate hospital and nursing. Nursing was started at her time & for the whole life. She has been working to improve health standard in the field of nursing taking the care of sick, disabled & injured people from the home, community to the various being the victim of war. Florence Nightingale is only the one who raised nursing to the level of a respectable profession for women.
History of nursing in Nepal
With the massive Himalaya Mountains to the north bordering on Tibet (now part of China) and a malaria and tiger infested area along the southern border with India; Nepal remained isolated and closed to the outside world more than 60 years ago. There was almost no infrastructure and no roads outside the main city, only footpaths connecting one part of the country with another.
Professional nursing and development in general began late in Nepal. However, nursing existed in Nepal from the very beginning. At first, the mother or other women at home provided nursing care to the sick, injured and old. Nursing has passed many phases but the inner spirit of nursing is the same-care of people. To be successful in nursing, nurses must enjoy their work. Nursing is a service which can be practiced with personal satisfaction, and earn a living at the same time. But now, the concept of nursing has changed. These changes are mainly due to change in the concept of health, pattern of illness and disease, and progress in science and technology. Now it has come out of the hospital to the community with the concept of primary health care. The nurses role is more expanded towards the promotion of health, prevention of disease rather than just providing care to the sick.
Nursing exists to serve society; as conditions and needs of society have changed, practices have altered in response to these changes. Today, nurses world-wide work in a variety of health areas. Such changes have occurred in Nepal also.
Nursing education in Nepal developed very lately, it is in early phase compared to that of China. Going through the history of nursing and nursing education in china, about more than 60 years difference can be traced out compared to that of Nepal. So a huge generation gap can be seen in the development of nursing education in two countries.
In Nepal, first ever hospital was established in 1896, since when the care to the sick people was extended from home to the institution. Before this period, women were the care provider in the family. Also traditionally there were some social religious groups such as gubaju, dhamijhakri, priest, dyamaju, sudeni who were involved in providing care and treatment of the sick people.
The beginning of informal training
There were no official nurses to care patient during the period of 1890 and 1930. Nursing was considered to be a very low type of service in the society. Most parents from high classes were opposed to the idea of sending their children to study nursing. These difficulties were the same in Miss Nightingale's day but over the past century, nursing has become a respectable profession in Europe. In the early 19th century, Nepali people become little aware of health, specially the Rana family. So they started to send Nepali ladies for nursing training in India, time to time. With the felt need, four girls were sent to India to pursue 18 month midwifery course who completed their course on 1952 and worked at Bir hospital. In the following years, various girls were sent to India for the nursing courses who after graduation...
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