History

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History and geographyFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the academic discipline. For a general history of human beings, see History of the world. For other uses, see History (disambiguation).

Historia
by Nikolaos Gysis (1892)
Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.[1] —George Santayana
History (from Greek ἱστορία - historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation"[2]) is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about these events. The term includes cosmic, geologic, and organic history, but is often generically implied to mean human history. Scholars who write about history are called historians. History can also refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them.[3][4] Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.[3][5][6][7] Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the tales surrounding King Arthur) are usually classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not support the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history.[8][9] Events occurring prior to written record are considered prehistory. Herodotus, a 5th-century B.C. Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history. Their work continues to be read today and the divide between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In the Eastern tradition, a state chronicle the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BCE although only 2nd century BCE texts survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today. The modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in University studies. Contents [hide]

1 Etymology
2 Description
3 History and prehistory
4 Historiography
5 Philosophy of history
6 Historical methods
7 Areas of study
7.1 Periods
7.2 Geographical locations
7.2.1 World
7.2.2 Regions
7.3 Military history
7.4 History of religion
7.5 Social history
7.5.1 Subfields
7.6 Cultural history
7.7 Diplomatic history
7.8 Economic history
7.9 Environmental history
7.10 World history
7.11 People's history
7.12 Historiometry
7.13 Gender history
7.14 Public history
8 Historians
9 The judgement of history
10 Pseudohistory
11 Teaching history
11.1 Bias in school teaching
12 See also
13 References
14 External links
Etymology

History by Frederick Dielman (1896)
A derivation from *weid- "know" or "see" is attested as "the reconstructed etymon wid-tor ["one who knows"] (compare to English wit) a suffixed zero-grade form of the PIE root *weid- 'see' and so is related to Greek eidénai, to know".[2][10] Ancient Greek ἱστορία[11] (hístōr) means "inquiry","knowledge from inquiry", or "judge". It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι[12] (Perì Tà Zôa Ηistoríai "Inquiries about Animals"). The ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes' oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions (in a legal sense, either "judge" or "witness", or similar). The...
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