13th Amendment: Abolished slavery. First of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War (1865-70) 14th Amendment: (1) All persons born in the U.S. are citizens; (2) no person can be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law; (3) no state can deprive a person of equal protection of the laws. Second of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War. 15th Amendment: States cannot deny any person the right to vote because of race. Third of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War. First Voting Rights Amendment Abolitionism: The militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830's to the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln:
Alamo: in 1835, Americans living in the Mexican state of Texas fomented a revolution. Mexico lost the conflict, but not before its troops defeated and killed a group of American rebels at the Alamo, a fort in San Antonio. American Colonization Society: Founded in 1817, this abolitionist organization hoped to provide mechanism by which slavery could gradually be eliminated. The society advocated the relocation of free blacks (followed by freed slaves) to the African colony of Monrovia, present day Liberia. Andrew Jackson:
Anti-Mason Party: the first third party, the masons were a super-secret society that many upper class people were a part of. When William Morgan was rejected from the masons he built on the rising suspicion that the masons were secretly running the country to spread anti-mason propaganda and eventually form the party. Although this party was unsuccessful it is notable as the first party to hold a national convention. Asylum:
Battle of Antietam: turning point of the war and a much-needed victory for Lincoln. Battle of Atlanta,
Battle of Gettysburg: 90,000 soldiers under Meade vs. 76,000 under Lee, lasted three days and the North won. Black Codes: laws passed by southern states immediately after the civil war in an effort to maintain the prewar social order. The codes attempted to tie freedmen to field work and prevent them from becoming equal to white southerners. Bleeding Kansas: Also known as the Kansas Border War. Following the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, pro-slavery forces from Missouri, known as the Border Ruffians, crossed the border into Kansas and terrorized and murdered antislavery settlers. Antislavery sympathizers from Kansas carried out reprisal attacks, the most notorious of which was John Brown's 1856 attack on the settlement at Pottawatomie Creek. The war continued for four years before the antislavery forces won. The violence it generated helped percipitate the Civil War. Bloomers:
Border States: States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede. California Gold Rush,
Compromise of 1850: this series of five congressional statutes temporarily calmed the sectional crisis. Among other things, the compromise made California a free state, ended the slave trade in the District of Columbia, and strengthened the Fugitive Slave Law. Compromise Of 1877: Compromise struck during the contested Presidential election of 1876, in which Democrats accepted the election of Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from the south and the ending of Reconstruction. Conscription: The poor were drafted disproportionately, and in New York in 1863, they rioted, killing at least 73 people. Cotton Embargo,
Cotton Gin: invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, this device for separating the seeds from the fibers of short-staple cotton enabled a slave to clean fifty times more cotton as by hand, which reduced production costs and gave new life to slavery in the South. Credit...