Importance of the Topic
Self-esteem reflects an individual’s overall appraisal of his or her own worth, which has a large influence on an individual’s behavior. Accurate prediction on job performance is critical to people in managerial positions, such as managers. Based on the theory of behavioral plasticity and self-monitoring, it is indicated that subordinates’ organization-based self-esteem, which reflects an employee’s self-perceived value as an organization member, moderates two important subordinate outcomes, namely task performance and innovative behavior (Rank, Nelson, Allen &Xu,2009). Therefore, the question whether self-esteem is an useful indicator of an individual’s job performance is worth further discussion and research. In order to examine the relationship, self-esteem and job performance will be discussed systematically in this article and a hypothesis is made as below: Two Variables Hypothesis
Hypothesis: Self-esteem is positively related to job performance (High self-esteem results to high job performance)
Definition of Variables
Tharenou defined self-esteem as “the evaluation which an individual make and customarily maintains with regard to the self. It expresses an attitude of approval or disapproval, and indicates the extent to which the individual believes the self to be capable, significant, successful and worthy” (Tharenou, 1979). In general, self-esteem can be categorized as implicit self-esteem and explicit self-esteem (Grumm, Nestler & Collani, 2009). Implicit self-esteem is positively related to the magnitude of the evaluative conditioning effect, while explicit self-esteem shows no significant relationship with the evaluative conditioning effect (Zhang & Chan, 2009). Additionally, self-esteem can also be recognized as high self-esteem and low self-esteem (Mruk, 1999). People with high self-esteem react positively active to unexpected challenges while people with low self-esteem under-evaluate their abilities and under-perform in activities. Self-efficacy is easily mistaken for self-esteem, and there are some similarities and differences between these two concepts. According to Natalie Branden, self-esteem relates to a person’s sense of self-worth, which is defined as “the disposition to experience oneself as being competent to cope with the basic challenges of life” (Branden, 1994). In contrast, self-efficacy is known as people’s beliefs about their ability to achieve a goal or perform necessary behaviors under prospective situations (Whyte, Saks & Hook, 1986-1998).The similarities between self-esteem and self-efficacy are that they are both self-originated, and act as the essential driving force for one to achieve his or her goals. In addition, they both help to motivate an individual to stay positive. However, both can be detrimental and counter-productive. The difference among the two concepts is that self-esteem is a feeling of self-worth, whereas self-efficacy is the belief in one’s capacity to handle tasks. In other words, they differ in the sense that self-esteem is more subjective, whereas self-efficacy is more objective. (Banndura, 1994) Job performance is the other variable in the hypothesis. Job performance is depicted by the quantity and quality expectation of employees, and which in turn form the basis for performance reviews (BusinessDictionary.com). It can be categorized as an individual’s obligatory behavior and contextual behavior. More specifically, obligatory behaviors are behaviors required by a job while contextual behaviors are voluntary behaviors beyond the requirement of the job (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993). Job performance is occasionally mistaken for job outcomes. Performance is presented as a bundle of behavior (Campbell, 1990), while outcomes can be numerical, which measures effectualness of the performance or behavior. The similarities between performance and outcome are that both of them are subsequent to some antecedents and...
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