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Review of Related Literature

Felicitas Artiaga-Soriano in her article “Irrational Fears” considered Fear and Anxiety as not always adoptive; that they can occur even in the absence of realistic threats and that one’s responses to threats can be out of proportion to the actual danger.

Soriano also emphasized the difference between fear and anxiety, that fear is an alarm response triggered when there is actual danger while anxiety, on the other hand is future-oriented, wherein one anticipates the possibility of a threat impending danger.

According to her, Genetic factors are also considered as causes of phobia though not seen as the sole cause. For, family members often share learning experiences and other environmental factors that patient with social phobia describe their parents as having: 1) discouraged them from socializing; 2) placed undue importance on the opinions of others; 3) used shame as a mans of discipline.

Rachman’s Pathways to Fear Development says that there are three pathways involved in developing fear. First; direct conditioning, which typically involves the experience of being hurt or frightened by the phobic situation or object. Second: vicarious acquisition, which involves witnessing, some traumatic events or someone behave fearfully in the presence of the phobic situation or object. And lastly, informational and instructional pathways (an individual may develop flying phobia as a result of news about of plane crashes.

According to General Psychology Classes of Emotional Reactions by Josefina Gaerlan et al. Fear is one of the most troublesome of all emotional ractions. The prominent feelings associated with fear are bodily sensations due to the activation of the autonomic nervous system. Common manifestations of fear are pounding of the heart, sinking feeling in the stomach, trembling and shaking, weakness, faintness and tensions.

They stated that the basic characteristic of the fear situation is that the individual is not ready to react adequately to that situation. Not being ready may be attributed to the lack of techniques for dealing successfully with the feared situation or the subject is reacting to a series of stimuli which are not related to fear producing stimulus. And that, fear of a specific object or situation may have been acquired through conditioning.


Method and Procedure

In this chapter, the researcher presented the method and procedure used in obtaining the data, in addition to the subjects of the study, the instrument adopted and the treatment of data.

Method Used

Using the descriptive method, the researcher stated the facts derived from the questionnaire which aimed to find out if the respondents are Hemophobic or not. Also to find out their reactions and their own way of dealing with their fear.

Subjects of the Study

The researcher selected twenty (20) BSMC Blk. 3 Students. They were enrolled during the second semester of the school year 2009-2010 at the PLM.

Instrument Used

The researcher adopted an instrument in the form of a questionnaire consisting eight questions that pertained to the respondents own experiences and opinions.


The researcher distributed the questionnaires to twenty (20) respondents who belonged to same class. The researcher considered the willingness of the respondents in accomplishing the questionnaires.

Treatment of the Data

The researcher presented the data gathered from the questionnaires. The researcher tallied, tabulated, and interpreted the students respondents using the percentage to answer the questions related to the problem of the study.


Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data

The data gathered from selected Mass Communication student respondents were presented, analyzed and interpreted in this chapter. The twenty (20) respondents were given the questionnaires which include some relevant pieces of information such as...
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