According to the World Health Organisation, health promotion can be defined as “the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants and thereby improve their health” (WHO, 2005). This essay will focus on the socioeconomic influences on health, the models of health promotion and the factors influencing health promotion. It will also highlight how a health campaign can be used to support health promotion strategies. Task 1
Health is a state of wholistic well-being encompassing physical, mental and social aspects of life and not just the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 2014). Many factors have impact on the health of individuals and peoples in general. These include socioeconomic factors, physical factors as well individual or personal characteristics and behaviour patterns. Such socioeconomic factors include employment, income, education, lifestyle and citizenship status. This essay will focus on the effects of socio-economic factors on teenage pregnancy in Lambeth borough of London. Lambeth is one of the South Boroughs of London and constitutes part of inner London. It is 3 miles wide and 7 miles long. According to ONS figures the borough has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy in the United Kingdom. Although it has witnessed a reduction in teenage pregnancy by more than 12.8% since 1998 the rate still remains high. 63% of pregnancy in Lambeth and its surrounding boroughs end in termination. As of 2011, Lambeth had a population of 7000 girls aged 15 – 19 years which is 5% of the family population. In the borough 34.8% of young women aged under 18 years conceived per 1000 population in 2011. Factors associated with higher chance of teenage pregnancy include low educational attainment, poverty, use of alcohol and drugs. Lambeth is ranked 27 of 149 most deprived local authorities thus implying a strong relationship between teenage pregnancy deprivation. Teenage parenting can be harmful to the mothers’ health apart from limiting the educational attainment and employment prospects. Moreover, babies born to under age mothers are likely to end up as teenage parents as well. According to ONS most teenage mothers by age 30 have 22% more chance likelihood of living in poverty than those giving birth at the age of 24 or over and have less chances of being employed or living with their partners. Children born by teenage mothers are 63% more likely to have behavioural issues compared to babies born to mothers in their twenties. In order to reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancy in the borough, a number of measures can be taken. These include school based or community based sex education linked to contraceptive services, programmes emphasising personal development and programmes promoting academic and social skills among young people. Also to ensure positive outcomes for underage mothers and their babies, good ante-natal care, home visit and support as well as child care support and career development are recommended.
Explain these socioeconomic factors such as employment, income, education, lifestyle, poverty and citizenship status.
Health inequalities are differences in health outcomes between communities. They are usually linked to socio-economic factors at individual and population levels. Government sources responsible for reporting these inequalities are the Health Survey England (HSE), Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS) as well as Reports and Enquiries. The HSE and HALS was a principal tool created by government to plan health services and formulate policies for all citizens (HSCIC, 2014). It also helps the government to know the level of health inequalities in each borough. The survey is carried out annually by means of interviews and questionnaires. The major challenges being faced by these government sources are manpower shortage to cover the whole country...
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