He Unification of Germany Revision.Doc

Austro-Prussian War, First French Empire, Otto von Bismarck

The Unification of Germany

Chapter 1 Germany 1815-1848
1. The Situation in Germany 1815
2. Reform and Repression 1815-40
3. Economic Development 1815-40
4. Germany 1840-8

1813 – Battle of Leipzig
1814-15 - The Vienna Peace Settlement
1815 – German Confederation established
1817 – Wartburg Festival
1818 – Constitution granted in Baden and Bavaria
1819- Carlsbad Decrees
1832 – Nationalist festival at Hambach, The Six Articles
1834 – Zollverein came into operation
1840 – Frederick William IV became King of Prussia
1847 – Meeting of the Prussian United Diet in Berlin

1. The Situation in Germany by 1815
• 23million divided between 314 states
• Under rule of Holy Roman Empire (Emperor of Austria) • Empire collapsed after Prussia was defeated by Napoleon, 1805-6

Napoleons Impact on Germany
• France annexed Rhine
• States reduced to 39
• 17 states formed confederation of Rhine, under French rule • Feudal Restrictions – landowning class limit freedom of workers

Prussia 1806-13-determined to become leading German State
• Army reorganized
• Government overhauled, more efficient central authority • New system of education

The War of Liberation
• Frederick William III made alliance with Russia against France, where French armies were driven back • Austria declared war on France, and at Battle of Leipzig, Napoleon was defeated • Allied armies invaded France, Napoleon abdicated

• Seen as ‘first collective action of German unity, but is known as a myth • Unacceptable behavior of French troops fueled nationalism

The Vienna Settlement
• 1814-15 – Austria and Prussian rivalry prevented unity • Metternich described as peaceful ‘dualism,’
• Austria gained territory in Italy
• Habsburg rulers in central Italian duchies (Parma, Modena, Tuscany) • Prussia gained Saxony, Rhineland, Westphalia, Pomerania • Rhineland Catholic, supported French, Prussia...
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