Germany 1918-1939 Notes

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Germany 1918 – 1939
1. The Weimer Republic

* Emergence of the Democratic republic and the Impact of the Treaty of Versailles * REVOLUTION AND THE BIRTH OF THE WEIMER REPUBLIC
* October 2nd 1918: Reichstag (parliament) informed GR couldn’t win war * Prince Max von Baden: became chancellor, brought Social Democratic Party (SDP) majority socialists into his cabinet hoped to maintain monarchy * Allies wouldn’t sign Armistice until Kaiser no longer ruled. * October 28 1918: revolution began in dockyards of Kiel final battle with British fleet many disagreed, mutinies began and then spread * Workers and Soldiers joined mutinying Sailors and took control of Kiel * Beginning of Revolution: GR set up councils based on Soviet Russian Bolshevik/communist revolution * Independent Socialists: set up a republic

* Left Wing: Communism
* Moderate: SDP
* Right: Democratic
* Left wing of GR politics was split between the Majority Socialists, Independent Socialists and Spartacists (revolutionary group who became GR communist party in December 1918) * Friedrich Ebert first Weimer president wanted to maintain law and order * Rosa Luxemburg: leader of Spartacists wanted ongoing (Bolshevik like) revolution (badly beaten and shot in January 1919) * Philip Scheidemann first elected chancellor proclaimed a new republic * General Groeger controlled the army after armistice in return for support, offered services to resist left wing extremism; Ebert placed future on the army * November 9th 1918: Weimer Republic was created, partially by accident * Revolution order + turmoil.

* Freikorps formed due to breaking down of discipline, provided the republic with a military force defend the country against “the evils of communism” * January 11th 1919: 2000 Freikorps entered Berlin (first real test) and fought Spartacists * They acted with brutality, communists, and those suspects were round up and shot (Rosa) number of victims estimated at 1200 * January 19th 1919: first elected government was produced * Ebert’s Social Democrats won more seats than any others not absolute majority; wound up with support from 76% of the electorate * Scheidemann made Chancellor and Ebert elected first president. * New republic soon had to face Bavarian Republic (declared November 7th 1918) under Kurt Eisner dedicated socialist * February 2nd 1919: Eisner was assassinated workers protested; Bavarian Parliament dissolved in panic * Aril 1919: Soviet republic declared; Red Guard formed

* May 1st 1919: Freikorps sent to Bavarian capital Munich, killing the ‘White Terror’ * May 8th 1919: siege over; 700 men and women dead
* THE IMPACT OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
* Treaty of Versailles another obstacle
* Terms of the treaty saw to the resignation of Scheidemann lots of protest, but acceptance inevitable; no condition to restart war * GR’s stunned by harshness; someone blamed
* Blame could not be placed on the army as they had not been defeated in the field * November Criminals: the socialist politicians who signed the armistice were blamed * Country still lived with legacy of the war, even as democracy continued to come through challenges (mid 1919) * lots of militaristic influence in the Weimer Period Nazi’s, Social Democrats, Red Front-Fighters League, Stalhelm (Steel Helmets)

* Political, Economic and Social Issues in the Weimer Republic in 1929 * ISSUES IN THE WEIMER REPUBLIC TO 1929
* August 1919: the constitution of the Weimer republic was proclaimed; was an improvement to its imperial predecessor played an important part in developing instability of the republic * Proportional Representation: made difficult for one party to gain clear working majority. Power placed in hands of elected president was criticised could dismiss chancellor and suspend public rights * THE KAPP PUTSCH

* Wolfgang Kapp launched...
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