Hand Foot Mouth Disease

Topics: Enterovirus, Hygiene, Hand, foot and mouth disease Pages: 6 (1478 words) Published: May 20, 2013
Report on Hand, Foot, Mouth, and Disease| Report Done by: Carmen Ng| | |

Public Health Module
Project Supervisor: Dr Mark Lim
AY 2013/2014
Public Health Module
Project Supervisor: Dr Mark Lim
AY 2013/2014

Contents Page

1. Introduction Page 2

2. Background of HFMD Page 2
3.1. Definition of HFMD
3.2. Symptoms of HFMD
3.3. Causes of HFMD
3.4. Age group that are more susceptible to HFMD
3.5. Complications of HFMD Page 3

3. Methods of Transmission Page 3

4. Prevention of HFMD
5.6. Methods of prevention
5.7. Advise to parent with infected child Page 4 5.8. Prevention for family members of infected child
5.9. Treatment plans

5. Conclusion Page 5

6. Reference Page 5


1. Introduction

This report discusses what Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is how it is spread as well as the precautions one should take to avoid getting HFMD.

There have been recurrent outbreaks of HFMD over the last few years and similar outbreaks of HFMD have also occurred in the region, namely in Brunei and Sarawak. In the recent outbreak in March this year, the number of HMFD cases in Singapore reached a peak of 785 cases a week. With the recurrent outbreaks of HFMD in Singapore and the region, and the potentially serious effects of the disease, particularly on children, the Ministry of Health (MOH) has tightened its guidelines on the procedures for the management of HFMD in child care centres in Singapore. In fact, HFMD is one of 30 ‘notifiable’ diseases which means that general physicians, polyclinics and hospitals have to inform MOH about every case of HFMD.

Owing to the major impact HFMD has on public health, this report serves to highlight several important aspects of HFMD and is submitted to Dr Mark Lim, lecturer of Public Health (PH) at Dover Polytechnic, in partial fulfilment of the PH module.

2. Background of HFMD

2.1 Definitions of HFMD

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a human syndrome caused by intestinal viruses of the picornaviridae (small RNA virus) family. And it is endemic in Singapore.

2.2. Symptoms of HFMD

People who have been infected with HFMD will normally show symptoms such as having fever for 2-3 days, sore throat, rashes (which are flat or raised red spots, sometimes with blisters) on palms of hands, soles of feet, or buttocks , mouth ulcers, poor appetite, vomiting and diarrhoea, tiredness and weakness ("feeling sick")

2.3. Causes of HFMD

HFMD is an illness caused by intestinal viruses; commonest being Coxsackie virus and Enterovirus 71. The enterovirus called Coxsackie virus A16 is the most common cause of HFMD. Also, another strain of the virus is the potentially deadly Enterovirus-71 (EV71). However, in some cases, other enteroviruses can also cause HFMD.

2.4. Age group that is more susceptible to HFMD

Children under 10 years old are more prone to infection of HFMD, but adults are also at risk of being infected. Not everyone who is infected becomes ill and shows symptoms, and everyone is at risk of being infected. Infants, children, and adolescents are more prone to infection and becoming ill from these viruses, because they are young and they are not immune as they have not been exposed to the specific kind of virus before. The infection leads to immunity to the specific strain of virus, but there might be a relapse in HFMD by a different strain of virus.

2.5. Complications of HFMD
HFMD is usually mild and self-limiting. However, some of the serious implications caused by the virulent strain include Myocarditis (an inflammation of the heart muscle), Viral Pneumonitis (an infection that causes irritation, swelling and congestion in the lungs), Asceptic Meningitis (the inflammation...
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