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Efficacy of Dietary Interventions in End Stage Renal Disease Patients: a systematic review

Submitted By:
Dr. Chaudhary Muhammaed Junaid Nazar
Student Number: 10848977

In partial fulfillment for the degree of Masters of Science in Nephrology February 2012

STUDENT ASSIGNMENT DECLARATION FORM
FACULTY OF HEALTH
INSTITUTE OF POSTGRADUATE MEDICINE
Student Name Chaudhary Muhammad Junaid Nazar
Module Code/Level MDM96
Module Title Dissertation
Assignment Title(s) Efficacy of Dietary Intervention in End Stage Renal Disease: a systematic review Module Leader John L. Anderson
Course M. Sc. in Nephrology
Student base site Flamer
Date Assignment Due 6th February 2012
Actual Date Submitted 6th February 2012
Number of words in assignment 16125
I, the undersigned, submit this assignment and formally declare that the work is original, of my own construction and not plagiarized from other sources. I have maintained anonymity by using a pseudonym for any patient/client referred to and have not named Trusts or clinical areas. I understand that failure to complete and comply with this declaration may result in a referral or fail. Name Chaudhary Muhammad Junaid Nazar

Signature
Date 6th February 2012.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to the Faculty of Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Brighton for providing me an opportunity to carry out the thesis. This is a great opportunity to extend my special thanks and respect to my supervisor TIFFANY BILLMERE, Professor JOHN ANDERSON and course co-coordinator JOE SMITH for their continuous guidance and support throughout my thesis writing. This work would not have been possible without their support. I will also like to say thanks to my family and friends especially my father who continuously bears expenditures for master degree and thesis. I would like to devote my whole efforts to my mother (late) due to which I choose nephrology as my area of specialization.

Abstract
End stage renal disease (ESRD) is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. ESRD results due to multiple risk factors such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, DM, stroke and many others. These risk factors are preventable and treatable. All the risk factors are treatable simply by adopting healthy life style for example eating balance diet and doing exercise etc. Several studies supports that use of good balance diet improves the condition of ESRD patients. Therefore, this systematic review was performed to find out how diet can help to improve the condition of ESRD patients and to indicate what are the risk factors effecting the action of diet itself to stop it form having good clinical outcomes. Aims: The purpose of this study is to synthesis previously published literature review dietary interventions designed to prevent delay or impede the progression of ESRD by identifying the risk factors. Method: articles were accessed by searching an electronic database as the source of retrieving and gathering of information such as; PUBMED/MEDLINE, CINAHL, BMJ, American College of Physicians PIER, Clinical Evidence of COCHRAINE database of systematic review and Internet search engine ‘’Google’’ using the appropriate MESH terms. The available literatures from 2000-2010 in developing countries such as England, America and European countries were reviewed relating to nutrition end stage renal disease (ESRD). Almost 10 articles were selected after inclusion and exclusion criteria, with different research deign were reviewed. Data extraction and content appraisal were done using a predefined protocol. Results: The review support the fact that if diet is used according to current guideline by the National Kidney Foundation and Renal association then it will improve the clinical outcome in ESRD....
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