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Not to be confused with inflection, tone (linguistics), or pitch accent. In linguistics, intonation is variation of pitch while speaking which is not used to distinguish words. It contrasts with tone, in which pitch variation does distinguish words. Intonation, rhythm, and stress are the three main elements of linguistic prosody. Intonation patterns in some languages, such as Swedish and Swiss German, can lead to conspicuous fluctuations in pitch, giving speech a sing-song quality. Fluctuations in pitch either involve a rising pitch or a falling pitch. Intonation is found in every language and even in tonal languages, but the realisation and function are seemingly different. It is used in non-tonal languages to add attitudes to words (attitudinal function) and to differentiate between wh-questions, yes-no questions, declarative statements, commands, requests, etc. Intonation can also be used for discourse analysis where new information is realised by means of intonation. It can also be used for emphatic/contrastive purposes. All languages use pitch pragmatically as intonation — for instance for emphasis, to convey surprise or irony, or to pose a question. Tonal languages such asChinese and Hausa use pitch for distinguishing words in addition to providing intonation. Generally speaking, the following intonations are distinguished: * Rising Intonation means the pitch of the voice rises over time [↗]; * Falling Intonation means that the pitch falls with time [↘]; * Dipping Intonation falls and then rises [↘↗];
* Peaking Intonation rises and then falls [↗↘].
Those with congenital amusia show impaired ability to discriminate, identify and imitate the intonation of the final words in sentences. Contents [hide] * 1 Transcription * 2 Uses of intonation * 3 Intonation in English * 4 Intonation in French * 4.1 Summary * 4.2 Detail * 4.2.1 Continuation pattern * 4.2.2 Finality pattern * 4.2.3 Yes/no pattern * 4.2.4 Information question pattern * 5 Intonation in Mandarin Chinese * 6 Languages with falling intonation in questions * 7 See also * 8 References| -------------------------------------------------
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, global rising and falling intonation are marked with a diagonal arrow rising left-to-right [↗] and falling left-to-right [↘], respectively. These may be written as part of a syllable, or separated with a space when they have a broader scope: He found it on the street?
[ hiː ˈfaʊnd ɪt | ɒn ðə ↗ˈˈstɹiːt ‖ ]
Here the rising pitch on street indicates that the question hinges on that word, on where he found it, not whether he found it. Yes, he found it on the street.
[↘ˈjɛs ‖ hi ˈfaʊnd ɪt | ɒn ðə ↘ˈstɹiːt ‖ ] How did you ever escape?
[↗ˈˈhaʊ dɪdjuː | ˈɛvɚ | ə↘ˈˈskeɪp ‖ ]
Here, as is common with wh- questions, there is a rising intonation on the question word, and a falling intonation at the end of the question. More detailed transcription systems for intonation have also been developed, such as ToBI (Tones and Break Indices), RaP (Rhythm and Pitch), and INTSINT . -------------------------------------------------
Uses of intonation
The uses of intonation can be divided into six categories::ch.6 * informational: for example, in English I saw a ↘man in the garden answers "Whom did you see?" or "What happened?", while I ↘saw a man in the garden answers "Did you hear a man in the garden?" * grammatical: for example, in English a rising pitch turns a statement into a yes-no question, as in He's going ↗home? This use of intonation to express grammatical mood is its primary grammatical use (though whether...