Comprehensive Guidance Programs That Work II Norman Gysbers and Patricia Henderson A Model Comprehensive Guidance Program Chapter 1 Norman C. Gysbers The Comprehensive Guidance Program Model described in this chapter had its genesis in the early 1970s. In 1972, the staff of a federally funded project at the University of Missouri-Columbia conducted a national conference on guidance and developed a manual to be used by state guidance leaders as a guide to developing their own manuals for state and local school district use. The manual was published in early 1974 and provided the original description of the Comprehensive Guidance Program Model. From the 1940s to the 1970s, the position orientation to guidance dominated professional training and practice in our schools. The focus was on a position (counselor) and a process (counseling), not on a program (guidance). Administratively, guidance, with its position orientation, was included in pupil personnel services along with other such services as attendance, social work, psychological, psychiatric, speech and hearing, nursing, and medical (Eckerson & Smith, 1966). The position orientation had its beginnings when guidance was first introduced in the schools as vocational guidance. As early as 1910, vocational counselors had been appointed in the elementary and secondary schools of Boston, and by 1915 a central office Department of Vocational Guidance had been established with a director, Susan J. Ginn. The vocational counselors in Boston were teachers who took on the work with no financial return and often no relief from other duties (Ginn, 1924). What were the duties of vocational counselors? The Duties of a Vocational Counselor: 1. To be the representative of the Department of Vocational Guidance in the district; 2. To attend all meetings of counselors called by the director of Vocational Guidance; 3. To be responsible for all material sent out to the school by the Vocational Guidance
Department; 4. To gather and keep on file occupational information; 5. To arrange with the local branch librarians about shelves of books bearing upon educational and vocational guidance; 6. To arrange for some lessons in occupations in connection with classes in Oral English and Vocational Civics, or wherever principal and counselor deem it wise; 7. To recommend that teachers show the relationship of their work to occupational problems; 8. To interview pupils in grades 6 and above who are failing, attempt to find the reason, and suggest remedy. 9. To make use of the cumulative record card when advising children; 10. To consult records of intelligence tests when advising children; 11. To make a careful study with grade 7 and grade 8 of the bulletin “A Guide to the Choice of Secondary School”; 12. To urge children to remain in school; 13. To recommend conferences with parents of children who are failing or leaving school; 14. To interview and check cards of all children leaving school, making clear to them the requirements for obtaining working certificates; 15. To be responsible for the filling in of Blank 249 and communicate with recommendations to the Department of Vocational Guidance when children are in need of employment. (Ginn, 1924, pp. 5-7) As more and more positions titled vocational counselor were filled in schools across the country, concern was expressed about the lack of centralization, the lack of a unified program. In a review of the Boston system, Brewer (1922) stated that work was “commendable and promising” (p.36). At the same time, however, he expressed concern about the lack of effective centralization: In most schools two or more teachers are allowed part-time for counseling individuals, but there seems to be no committee of cooperation between the several schools, and no attempt to supervise the work. It is well done or indifferently done,
apparently according to the interest and enthusiasm of the individual principal or counselor. (p.35) Myers (1923) made the same...
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