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College of Nursing
1. To identify the main characteristic of grounded theory. 2. -------------------------------------------------
To critically evaluate the methodology of grounded theory.
Grounded theory was developed in 1960’s by two sociologist, (Glaser and Strauss, 1967) one of whom (Strauss) had strong theoretical training in symbolic interaction. One of their earliest studies was grounded theory on dying in hospitals in which the prime controllable variable was characterized as “awareness context”. Definition of Grounded theory
Glaser and Strauss(1967)
• GT is the discovery of theory from data systematically obtained from social research. • The strategy used in this discovery process is method of constant comparative analysis. • The purpose of GT is to explain the data (concepts)
(Strauss and Corbin 1990)
• GT is inductively derived from the study of the phenomenon it represents (instead of starting out with a theory and proving it) • Data, analysis and theory are constantly interacting (having a “dialogue” with each other not isolated but are parts of a conversation) • The purpose of using GT method is to develop a theory from the data being examined (theory fits what is seen in the data)
Grounded theory is a type of qualitative research methodology that allows theory/theories to emerge from the data that is collected. Grounded theory research follows a systematic yet flexible process to collect data, code the data, make connections and see what theory/theories are generated or are built from the data. “A theory is a set of concepts that are integrated through a series of relational statements. (Hage, 1972).” Grounded theory has become an important research method for the study of nursing phenomena and has contributed to the development of many middle range theories relevant to nurses. Grounded theory is generally inductive method that is not inextricably linked to a particular theoretical perspective or type of data (Glaser,2005). Conceptualization is essential for grounded theory (Glaser,2003). Grounded theory researchers generate emergent conceptual categories and their properties and integrate them into substantive theory grounded in the data. Alternative views of grounded theory
In 1990, Strauss and Corbin published what was become a controversial book, Basic of Qualitative Research: Grounded theory procedures and Techniques. Strauss and Corbin stated that the purpose of the book was to provide beginning grounded theory researchers with basic knowledge and procedures involved in building theory at the substantive level. Glaser, however, disagreed with some of the procedures advocated by Strauss and Corbin. Glaser published a rebuttal in 1992, Emergence Versus Forcing: Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis. Glaser believed that Strauss and Corbin developed a method that is not grounded theory but rather what he calls “full conceptual description.” According to Glaser, the purpose of grounded theory is to generate concepts and theories about their relationship that explain, account for, and interpret variation in behavior in the substantive area under study. 2 types of Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967)
1. Substantive theory – is grounded in data on the specific substantive area
Beck, (2007) modified her 1993 grounded theory study, Teering on the Edge, which was a substantive theory of postpartum depression. Since Beck’s original study had been conducted, 10 qualitative study of postpartum depression in woman from other cultures had been published. The results from those 10 transcultural studies were compared with the findings from the original grounded theory. Maximizing differences among comparative groups is powerful method for enhancing the generation of...