Ground Improvement Techniques

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  • Topic: Geotechnical engineering, Soil, Concrete
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The 12 International Conference of
International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG) 1-6 October, 2008
Goa, India

Ground Improvement Techniques for Infrastructure Projects in Malaysia
V. R. Raju
Keller Far East, Singapore

Y. Hari Krishna
Keller Ground Engineering (India) Pvt. Ltd.
Keywords: Vibro methods, Deep Soil Mixing, Grouting techniques, applications in infrastructure projects ABSTRACT: Ground improvement techniques utilising Vibro methods, Deep Soil Mixing and Grouting technologies are finding increasing application in Malaysia to solve a broad spectrum of geotechnical problems. This paper will describe recent applications in Malaysia for four separate projects – Jet Grouting to form stable cutter-head interventions for a tunnel project; Deep Soil Mixing to support deep vertical basement excavation with limestone interface for a commercial complex; Vibro Concrete Columns to found reinforced concrete tanks in former domestic landfill for a sewage treatment plant; Vibro Stone Columns to support high reinforced soil walls for a highway project. The importance of quality control measures are emphasized and available proving methods are also discussed. The case histories presented demonstrate that the techniques can provide effective solutions to challenging engineering problems.

1 Introduction
Malaysia has seen extensive growth for the past one decade with many infrastructure projects in the construction industry. Current technology affords many ground improvement techniques to suit a variety of soil conditions, structure types and performance criteria. These ground improvement techniques can offer alternative foundation systems to the conventional pile foundation systems. For more details on various available ground improvement nd

techniques, the reader is referred to “Ground Improvement 2 Edition” book edited by Moseley & Kirsch (2004). This paper illustrates four recent case histories in Malaysia, where innovative ground improvement techniques were employed to suit varying needs of application type and performance criteria. The chosen techniques varied from Jet Grouting, Deep Soil Mixing, and Vibro Concrete Columns to Vibro Stone Columns as shown in the Figure 1.

The construction methodology and quality control procedures during execution of works were in accordance with relevant Code of Practices (e.g. BS EN 12716:2001, BS EN 14679:2005, BS EN 14731:2005, etc.). These techniques offered reasonably environmental friendly solutions, especially in urban areas.

Figure 1. Schematic showing various ground improvement techniques.

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2 Recent case histories in Malaysia
This paper will describe following four different case histories from four separate projects; where ground improvement techniques were utilised to solve challenging problems in difficult ground conditions: a)

b)
c)
d)

Jet Grouting to form stable tunnel boring machine cutter-head interventions for a tunnel project. Deep Soil Mixing to support vertical basement excavation over limestone for a commercial complex. Vibro Concrete Columns to support reinforced concrete process tanks in a former domestic landfill for a sewage treatment plant.

Vibro Stone Columns to support high reinforced soil walls for a highway project.

3 Application of Jet Grouting

3.1 Background
A tunnel project in Kuala Lumpur involved the construction of a 13m diameter bored tunnel over approximately 10km stretch. The tunnel will function mainly as a storm water storage and diversion channel but also incorporates a 3km motorway in a triple deck arrangement. The geology encountered along the tunnel path was ex-mining soils and limestone formation. For more details of the project, the reader is referred to Raju & Yee (2006).

The cutter-head of the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) required maintenance at regular intervals (about 150m to 200m). At such TBM stops (referred as “cutter-head intervention”), the slurry...
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