GLOBALIZATION AND hUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Assoc. Professor vilnius University Department of Management vilnius, saulėtekio al. 9 Tel. (370 5) 236 6134 e-mail: email@example.com Globalization represents the structural making of the world characterized by the free flow of technology and human resources across national boundaries as well as the spread of Information Technology and mass media presenting an ever-changing and competitive business environment. The article deals with the practical consequences of globalization for human resource management (HRM). Globalization makes national culture an increasingly strategic issue that has to be faced and properly managed. The problem is the balancing of the global trends in human resource management with the influence of national culture because many aspects of HRM are affected by differences in national culture. The article analyses the major challenges arising from globalization and affecting human resource management practices in the 21st century in selected industrialized countries (United Kingdom, France, USA, Japan) and Lihtuania as a new member of the EU. The general aim of the article is to analyse the problem of balancing seemingly opposing forces (globalization and the influence of national culture) and to identify trends in HRM across five countries: United Kingdom, France, USA, Japan and Lithuania. Keywords: globalization, human resource management, cultural differences, trends.
value and other fundamental differences in the object of the study is consequences how people from different cultures view of globalization for managing human re- the world. the goal of the article is to investigate sources across selected cultures. In today’s globaleconomy,theextenttowhichHRM global and national (on the basis of several activities are successful across cultures industrialized economies and Lithuania) will largely depend on the manager’s abi- trends in HrM. the research questions lities to understand and balance other cul- were: tures’ values and practice as regards such 9 What are the opposing dualities that the thingsastheimportanceofwork,howpomanagershavetoharmonizeininternawerandstatusareconferred,theperceived tional organisations? 41
9 Does the increasing global competition make HrM less differentiated (on the example of selected countries)? 9 What are the HrM trends in lithuanian companies? the following research methods have beenused:system,logicandcomparative analysis of scientific conceptions. Also, empirical studies carried out in different countries are presented. the primary data from lithuanian companies were collected. Other data were derived from printed papers,booksandstatistics.
1. Globalisation and its consequences for organisations
Globalisation requires attention to “more than conducting business across national borders but also entails expanding competition for almost every type of organisation presenting management with the challenge to operate in diverse cultural settings”(Edwards,2006).O’Keeffecontends that the advent of the global eco-
nomy has brought a realisation that the only lasting competitive advantage is an organisation’s ability to effectively exploit human resources. HrM has become asignificantfactorinthemanagementfor organizationalsuccess.Themultinational companies (MNCs) and other internationalorganizationsfacethechallenge:what kindofanewformof“glue”helpstomanage Hr worldwide? the idea emerging fromorganizationalbehaviourliteraturein recentyearswillhelptofindtheanswer. It comes from the work of Paul Evans and YvesDozfromInSEADbusinessschool in France. EvansandDozhavedescribedthemanagerial challenge in complex internationalorganizationsintermsofbalancingthe opposingdualities(EvansandDoz,1999). they believe that the pace of...