Different countries or different regions could have different approaches to managing people. This is mainly due to cultural differences. This essay will select American, Japanese and China which have obvious distinctive cultural contexts and compare their human resource management practices. On the other hand, take some multinational corporations, such as Wal-Mart, Panasonic and IBM, as an example to compare their different human resource management practices in these three countries. Besides, the essay will explain the reasons why the different human resource management practices happened from the cultural aspects.
The essay includes the following:
• The role of national culture in IHRM
• Comparison in recruitment and selection aspect
• Comparison in training and development aspect
• Comparison in reward and performance management aspect
1 The role of national culture in IHRM
Culture is regarded as the one of most important factors to influence to international human resource management. Managers and Employees could have different processes, behaviours and values on decision-making because they come from different cultures (Harris, 2004)
Multinational companies (MNCs) regard that HR play a very important role in sustaining their competitive advantage in high competitive global environment which the workforce becomes more diverse and multicultural (Scullion and Linehan, 2005). They will find that successfully importing Western human resource policies and practices into operations based in some developing countries was very difficult because there are some cultural barriers between different countries (Faten, 2008). In order to deal with this situation effectively, HR must be knowledgeable about cross-cultural factors in international human resource management. So the companies could more effectively and efficiently use their HR to achieve successfully their mission and goals by promoting study of cross-cultural competencies (HRMagazine, 2008).
Along with the development of technological and economic globalization, some people might argue that the culture became more and more convergent. ‘Under the convergence argument, the management is management, consisting of a set of principles and techniques that can be universally applied’ (Harris, 2004, pp.16). However, some called perfect management model can not work at all in some distinctive culture country. So it could show the divergence of culture still exist and dominate (Beardwell and Claydon, 2010). So distinguish the difference cultures in different countries and design the management strategies according to the distinctive culture are very necessary in IHRM.
China, American and Japanese are the three countries with distinctive cultural contexts. Although due to the culture convergence, there could be some similar HRM practices such as selection, development, and reward and performance management, the HRM practices have more obvious differences and divergence because of distinctive cultural contexts.
2 Comparison of recruitment and selection
Due to different societal culture and internal organizational factors, the process of recruitment and selection are different (Tayeb, 2005). The different forms of recruitment and selection in China, United States and Japanese are described as figure1.
Figure1: different forms of recruitment and selection in China, United States and Japanese | |Source of Recruitment |System of Recruitment |Requirement of Requirement | |China |Combination with Internal |Combination with lifetime |Work experience Relationship | | |recruitment and external labour |employment system and free |(hidden) | | |market |employment system | | |United States |External labour...