Student NO.: 220083xxx
Unit: PDAS 311
Unit Coordinator: Professor X
Due Date: Friday, 30 March 2012, 11:59 PM
Words account: 2642
Globalization is the trend toward greater political, economic, and cultural interdependence among national institutions and economies. Globalization is a trend characterized by denationalization (national boundaries becoming less relevant) and is different from internationalization (entities cooperating across national boundaries). The greater interdependence that globalization is causing means an increasingly freer flow of goods, services, money, people, and ideas across national borders (Wild, Wild, and Han 2010: 34-35). Globalization embraces concepts and theories from political science, sociology, anthropology, and philosophy as well as economics. According to Veech (1), during the last four decades of the 19th century, the first industrial revolution occurred with the application of steam engine and later telephone and airplane. This revolution promoted the international trade and investment, which caused the first age of globalization. From the Second World War to now, the advent of the computer and the information disseminate the processes efficiency drive the globalization into a new era (Evans, Philip, Würster and Thomas 1999: 51). The technology promoted the globalization keep going to fit the world’s economies development. Although, globalization, as defined above, it really contributes to international trade and investment, it brings costs as well. The essay firstly illustrates what the term of “globalization” with explanations of its conception and theory. Then, it contrasts the advantages and disadvantages of the globalization. Moreover, it shows the key challenges posed by globalization for national governments. At last, it also shows how globalization impacted on the organization with some companies as examples.
Globalization concepts and theories
First of all, globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven the international trade and investment to aid by information technology. Firstly, it has been asserted that globalization provides the increasing of productivity and life standard of societies. Moreover, globalization a wide range of distinct political, economic, and cultural trends, the term “globalization” has quickly become one of the most fashionable buzzwords of contemporary and academic debate. In popular discourse, globalization often functions as little more than a synonym for one or more of the following phenomena: the pursuit of classical liberal (or free market) policies in the world economy (economic liberalization), the growing dominance of western forms of political, economic, and cultural life (westernization or Americanization). In general, globalization is a trend towards the world economies to develop integrated with capital and trade flowed more freely and more communication in different markets among different nations. In specific, to see from the three main driving forces of globalization: technologies, institutions, and policies, it is important to combine globalization with other two phenomena: the Knowledge society, Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) (Helleiner, Gerald Karl 2000). For driving forces perspective, it is important to distinguish globalization from internationalization, which can be explain as that individual governments cannot change or influence on globalization but on internationalization. And it is also significant to focus that...